An Strange Vision When Roopkund Lake Ice Melts

Roopkund is a glacial lake in the Uttarakhand, a northern point out in India. It is found at a substantial altitude of all around 5,029 meters or 16,499 toes in the Himalayas. It is a glow glacial lake with a depth of about only two meters and it is surrounded by snow clad mountains and rock strewn glaciers. This lake is also regarded as Mystery Lake or Skeleton Lake in new times because it includes visible stays of human skeletons when the snow in the lake melts in summer time. This lake is positioned in the Trishul massif, an uninhabited spot in the Himalayas.

Quite a few thoughts and theories that vary from non secular to scientific are out there about the presence of skeletons in this lake. It has been recognized that these skeletons belong to the ninth century. HK Madhwal, a game reserve ranger in the Nanda Devi mountain range of the Himalayas especially discovered these human skeletons in 1942, while there experienced been before experiences about them from late nineteenth century. Through the one month period in summer months, when ice melts in the lake, the skeletons are clearly noticeable in the melted water. Other artifacts like iron spearheads, rings, and leather slippers are also existing in the lake alongside with the skeletons.

A group belonging to Countrywide Geographic journal frequented the lake in 2003 and retrieved all around 30 skeletons. The group observed that human flesh remained hooked up to a couple skeletons throughout this retrieval system. A analyze on the skeletons founded that the skeletons were definitely of Indian origin and not of Chinese origin. A further analyze pointed out that this mass dying need to have occurred through the ninth century, generating the skeletons identified in the Roopkund Lake about 1,200 decades aged. The remnants of around 300 individuals remained in the lake, even though precise figures were being not ascertained. The Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit of the Oxford University conducted a radiocarbon dating of the bones recovered from this lake and established that the bones belonged to a time interval of 850 Advertisement, with as well as or minus of 30 a long time. The Anthropological Study of India also done a comprehensive review of the skeletons in the 1950s. Some of the samples of the skeletons are on exhibit at the Museum of Anthropological Study of India in Dehradun, in the point out of Uttarakhand.

The scientific assessments have unveiled that these skeletons belong to various groups of persons. The skeletons involved shorter men and women and scientists conclude that these skeletons should really belong to area porters. The taller teams of peoples have been intently associated to the Konkanstha Brahmins from Maharashtra, recognized as Chitpavans. The Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) manufactured a DNA check on a few samples of the skeletons recovered from the Roopkund Lake. The tests confirmed that the exceptional mutation of the skeletons in mitochondrial DNA checks matched exactly with the DNA of Chitpavans or the Konkanstha Brahmins from Maharashtra. The only troubles in the total problem have been the precise group that headed toward this region and perished en masse and where this team was likely. There have been no historic evidences of unique trade routes to China or Tibet in this area. The secret of the skeletons stays unsolved.

Resource by Chandan Rautela

Indian Youth Weak In Vocational Teaching: Study

As for each a report introduced on May well 12, 2013, just about 2 percent of India&#39s youth and only about 7 percent of the complete doing the job-age population have received voluntary schooling. This is the motive why one of the perennial problems Indian industries faces-lack of expert manpower. Hereditary instruction (carrying on the relatives&#39s trade like farming or pottery making) or finding out on the job carries on to deliver additional competencies than the total official voluntary schooling set-up in the state which includes 8,800 ITI and 450 polytechnics. Hereditary discovering is the supply of needed capabilities for 1.8 p.c of the working-age persons. Learning on the position arrives to the rescue of 1.7 p.c men and women of 15-59 several years of age. Only 1.6 percent has any formal vocational coaching.

In lots of conditions, there is no match involving the nature of vocational coaching a single experienced and the task he / she ism accomplishing. For example, in excess of 65 % of rural labourers performing at construction sites or agricultural fields experienced education in mechanical or electrical engineering, or computer system capabilities. Just about 58 per cent experienced received computer system-linked diplomas. More than 57, percentage of urban females who had properly trained as beauticians or hair dressers finished up as private service personnel or marketing executives.

The most telling studies in the study was linked to unemployment and becoming “not in the labor force”. Almost 60 % of people who experienced done textile-similar vocational classes and 57 percent of these who had trained to come to be beauticians had been no longer in the perform. All round, about 8 % of the skilled individuals have been unemployed and a different 33 % have been not in the workforce. Around 56 percent of properly trained ladies ended up reported as not being in the get the job done when compared to 20 per cent of guys. About 12 p.c of women and 7 per cent of gentlemen were being unemployed.

These aspects have emerged from the benefits of a study carried out by the National Sample Survey Firm in 2009-10. The survey lined 4.6 lakh folks.

* Just about 2 percent of India&#39s youth and only about 7 per cent of the entire doing the job-age populace have acquired voluntary education.

* Hereditary training or learning on the job continues to deliver far more expertise than the whole official education instruction established-up.

* In quite a few conditions, there is no match amongst the nature of voluntary training just one experienced and the career 1 is accomplishing.

* Overall, about 8 per cent of the skilled persons ended up unemployed and yet another 33 p.c had been not in the workforce.

* About 12 percent of gals and 7 per cent of guys ended up unemployed.

Source by Kapil Rawat

Why You Have to have to Pick SMS Internet marketing In India

Presently, there are around 929.37 million cellular telephone subscribers in India. In accordance to a study carried out by Nielsen Informate Cellular Insights, there are 27 million Clever telephone buyers in Urban India. At present, SMS is a well known medium for delivering Worth Included Providers (VAS) in India. It is approximated that about 20% urban Indians have used a SMS VAS company. SMS is an efficient advertising and marketing instrument in India, displaying conversion costs increased than other typical mediums.

As cellular telephones are attaining recognition amid persons, little and substantial-scale businesses have started off to rely on cellular advertising to encourage their items and solutions. Different varieties of cellular advertising techniques these types of as Multimedia Message Company (MMS), Quick Message Service (SMS), Pay back For each Simply call mobile, Voice Internet marketing, Cell Banner Advertisements and Cellular programs are utilized in India for advertising objective.

However, SMS advertising is attaining recognition between marketers as it is speedy, reputable and successful mode of conversation. What’s more, Small Message Services (SMS) has grow to be a well-liked mode of conversation between folks. It is estimated that an normal Indian sends all-around 29 SMS per thirty day period. Considering the fact that it is more cost-effective than other usual marketing modes, SMS advertising is made use of generally by modest-scale providers to industry their solutions.

As SMS technology is booming in India, bulk SMS software program is rising in India to satisfy the exceptional marketing and advertising necessities of firms. Previously, Indian marketers had to count on SMS assistance providers to deliver multiple messages but now making use of bulk SMS computer software they are able to obtain complete handle around their marketing marketing campaign. As SMS program has customizing choices, end users are in a position to customize the shipping time of messages in accordance to their requires.

A further crucial explanation for its expanding level of popularity in India is that SMS advertising and marketing campaigns are straightforward to deal with. SMS software package has quick to use interface which lets even an inexperienced marketer to make use of it effectively. As it has more quickly turnaround time, providers are equipped to ascertain the development of their promoting campaign within a few months and are ready to improve their marketing campaign in time.

Nowadays, bulk SMS technique is normally practiced in metropolitan metropolitan areas like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmedabad and states like Punjab and Gujarat. Beside, it is also getting recognition in other compact cities and towns. Currently, distinct styles of bulk SMS software package&#39s are remaining laid out in India for the enhancement of interaction in India. SMS advertising has obtained great progress in India and nonetheless has a good deal of untapped probable.

Resource by Moneek H Mehra

The Importance of the Thousand Pillar Temple

The Thousand Pillar Temple or Rudreshwara Swamy Temple is a historic Hindu temple positioned in the town of Hanamakonda, Telangana Condition, India. It is dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Surya.

According to one incredibly old book in Sanskrit at BORI (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute), Poona: Mandiram Puratanam, the significance of 1000 pillar is that 333 pillows for three deities: Shiva, Vishnu and Surya and one particular pillar for the Brahma (the creator) who does not determine in this temple.

But this explanation or importance was rejected by Professor Sukhtankar who&#39s environment-renounced for his address on Mahabharat. Even Belvalkar did not settle for this theory. However, it&#39s nevertheless popular among a sure team of &#39scholars&#39 and devotees.

This temple has its have great importance and individuals who check out South and have a religious bent of head, by no means fall short to go and see this outstanding shrine.

A visitor&#39s impressions of thousand pillar temple:

According to ASI (Archaeological Survey of India), this temple is visited by devotees as very well as architects. The architectural significance of this temple is truly noteworthy. There are richly carved pillows, perforated screens, beautiful icons rock slash elephants and the monolithic dolerite Nandi as components of the temple. Maxwell Fry, who assisted French architect Lee Carbuzio in structuring Chandigarh, visited 1000 pillar temple in South in 1959.

It&#39s thought that the notion of ​​structural help and suspension balance was taken from right here. But there&#39s no official proof to aid this claim which very first appeared in the Quest in 1972.

The importance of the thousand pillar temple Warrangal :

The 1000 pillar is a strategy prevalent in the ancient temple architecture of India. Sahsram stambham vritika poornam (A person thousand billars finish the divine significance of a temple / shrine).

A pillar is a image of power. Thousand pillows consolidate that energy. In Vishnu Sahsranaam, just one gets to study that the heaven stands on sahsram stambham (on a person thousand pillars).

That heavenly metaphor may perhaps have been utilized here by the artisans of the temple, guided by males of good spiritual knowledge and prescience.

From Tantrik or occult standpoint of historic Hinduism, stambh is symbolic of &#39erect phallus&#39 (Stamghan: Erection in Sanskrit). The ancient India was not at all prudish like the present day India. Kama and Moksha (salvation) lived cheek-by-jowl without any prudery or emotion of humiliation. Khajuraho&#39s temples with their erotic carvings underscore this actuality so eloquently. No question, if this may perhaps have been an underlying cause behind the building of this temple.

Resource by Juhi Mateen

Political Influence Whilst Starting off A Small business In India

As in any element of the globe, political influence is hugely critical to start off a business in India. Primarily if you are planning to start out a multi billion enterprise, some kind of political patronage is an complete necessity. Not only for safeguarding the curiosity of the company but even to start off the procedure of acquiring the needed sanctions, just one calls for hold in the high echelons of politics and administrative circles.

Indian culture is hugely plural. It is the largest democracy in the planet with multi occasion political system. In population, India is 2nd to China, with approximately 1200 million people today. This is the most essential buyer current market in the planet. It is a quick establishing world. India is the 3rd greatest financial state in the globe and second rapid increasing financial system in Asia. It has the great prospective of enhancement with large mental human pressure. With all these advantages and the big sector opportunity, world tremendous business people are looking for organization establishments in India. With the overcrowded populace and the millions of really hard doing work and capable personals, India delivers a incredibly affordable work power to the world. Several have realized the business likely in India, began discovering the special possibilities of investments.

For the duration of the last few of a long time, India has opened its market place to earth. It has definitely develop into an open up worldwide current market. Banking sector, Insurance coverage sector and all fields of industrial and enterprise are now open up for multi nationwide financial investment. Of study course there are quite a few obstructions to cross. And largely all troubles can triumph over and create company if you have the political patronage.

India has a political political system. With numerous political parties, national amount and point out level, it is incredibly difficult to get a consensus among the all events for starting off any organization. Also these political events have patronage of a lot of factors, caste, creed and ideologies. There are political get-togethers with remaining centric communist ideologies they are completely against direct foreign investments. But other events, who are major ruling coalition associates, have suitable centric ideologies and open up for foreign investments. In most of the states, primarily neighborhood political functions are ruling. Political events demand money patronage from large company establishments.

Numerous constituent states have recognized the will need for international investments in their condition for a growth oriented economic scenario. Listed here is the local climate has modified a large amount in India. So numerous privileges are made available to business people to commence business. With all these facilities, nonetheless political patronage is a should to start a business enterprise in India. Even soon after setting up the small business, for a right working of the business, political aid is essential. It is generally to type out concerns related to nearby taxes, labor difficulties and several these kinds of problems affecting the normal doing the job of the corporations.

Resource by Robert Grazian

Placement Ratio or Talent Advancement? What Indian Engineering Demands To Concentration Upon

Generally referred as a &#39Land of Engineers&#39, thousands of engineering colleges in India deliver an typical of 6 lakh engineering industry experts for every calendar year. We are the greatest provider of engineering workforce close to the world, specifically in the UAE, US and United kingdom. Despite staying the variety a person producer of the engineering perform on the full globe, India has unsuccessful inadequately in education the very same activity force.

Concentrating on the boosting ability deficiency among the engineering activity pressure in the region, a the latest IET Feedback Study highlighted the need of skill schooling in engineering faculties. As for each the report, occupation placements have turn into additional significant for colleges, than talent enhancements for most of the engineering institutions in the region. All around 85% of the business and 55% of the faculties opinioned that “schools concentrate more on task placement of the students in its place of making their capabilities and investigation abilities!”

Engineering is amongst handful of important task creators in the state and depriving skill is a issue of concern for both govt and market. All-around 50% of the engineering graduates in the nation are unemployed. Deficiency of industry teaching make them unfit for the recent industry wants and since does not aid India improve its employability ratio in the identical.

The study was a put together hard work of “Engineering Admissions & Perceptions – India, Institution of Engineering & Technologies (IET) and Opinions Consulting” which surveyed close to 187 engineering faculties throughout India, 200 parents of enrolled students and 100 leaders from the marketplace.

In this article are the big highlights of the report:

  • Main engineering these types of as civil, electrical, mechanical, and many others. and market engineering such as biotech, textile, leather-based and so forth. have received their acceptance.
  • The total proportion of female enrollment has greater. It went more than 31%, specially in personal computer-oriented streams.
  • IT / ITES, Manufacturing and Electrical / Digital remained the leading a few guests of the engineering campuses all around India. Nonetheless, in 2015 close to 20% Analytics, e-Commerce & Hello-Engineering firms also participated in the recruitments.
  • As for every the report, utmost scholar opted to engineer simply because of better job point of view relatively than individual interest and all over 40% ended up functioning in the profits / promoting / HR area.
  • Parental tension is just one of the significant elements of opting engineering in India.
  • 80% educational, 74% sector gurus and 85% mothers and fathers think that global accreditation of engineering faculties and programs is needed to entice the most effective faculty and high quality instruction in this specific area.

Comparison in the report was carried out involving the fiscal yr of 2013 and 2014.

What Must be Completed?

IET, the most significant engineering institution of the environment with around 1.6 Lakh members from across 127 international locations performing for the betterment and security of engineering requirements on the globe. Based mostly on the survey final results, the committee suggested down below-mentioned to increase the high quality of engineering in India:

  • Stress must be provided on strengthening and developing exploration talents of the students.
  • More concentrate should be presented upon the accreditation process of engineering colleges.
  • Schools ought to flip their concentration on the talent improvement instead than the position placement.
  • Females participation ought to be encouraged.
  • Anxiety should really be presented on field (functional instruction) of the students by enhancing sector-academia collaboration.

Source by Ritu Sharma L

Survey Shows Rising Trend In Pest Control Services In India

However, you can still perform this on very by with a couple homemade possibilities. An individual aren’t addressing unseen damage, which grows quickly. Weeds are a Pest to every gardener.

Before buying any involving property its must for your pre purchase inspection. Suppose, you are interested in a house or want to shift another apartment then you can certainly must try work for you to sign some type of paper. It will be important as it is the matter of spending a lot of money. People buy an at home by spending huge degrees of money to locate a the duty of the buyers to be sure all points related for the home. In this particular matter which can be done the inspection on your personal personal. But, it would be great if can perform take assistance from the professional inspector to be able to inspect your house thoroughly. Generally people check out an organization that have a group of professional building and pest inspectors. You must go to a well known organization results the best service to be able to.

The most frequently found flea found is the “Ctenocephalides” cat flea. Historical past of the is confusing as these fleas are happy to survive your dog and puppy. There are more than 3,000 various species of fleas globe United States, but dispersed further flea will still be the the majority of typical.

Repair any leaky pipes and other plumbing issues around residence. For the sake of pest prevention, do not allow any water to accumulate or sit for extended intervals in household. This can usher in fungus problems too. Empty the tray under your refrigerator frequently well the trays under any house plants in order to might ‘ve got. The more you can make for in approach of pest prevention the less anyone could have to do in the way of Pest Control!


Get containers such as jars to maintain your food in consumers that the relationship is sealed up tight such that mice can’t munch on it in the guts of the night time. This enable you buy them out of cabinets your own store super food.

While are generally discussing trash cans, make sure that you empty yours very, very regularly. Sitting trash decomposes and emits more enticing odors to your fly. It will ample time to reproduce and begin another generation. So empty cans regularly, and wash them out weekly with an above average bleach baths. Using locking lids can also limit access on the trash as a breeding and feeding site for the fly.

Another good-for-nothing common Pest on Earth is the Cimex hemipterus. These are cousins for this common bed bug mostly found in warmer periods. They are mostly found citrus and infest bats and poultry. Reduce them inside the home, kind contact professional agencies for help.

Mint is often a very tasty herb which a tendency to go wild in a garden if not kept down. Instead of planting mint within your garden, ensure that it stays in significant container or pot cease it from spreading. You’ve the choice of planting the container although plant support the roots from your garden minimum.

When a person consistent and employ specific comments you may find amazing results. If you take the time build those business relationships you understand great referral resources and possible joint venture partners for future works of art.

Indian Short Tale in English – A Survey

Murli Das Melwani: Themes in the Indian Limited Tale in English: An Historic and A Essential Study. Bareilly: Prakash E-book Depot, 2009. Webpages 207. Rate: Rs. 175 / -, ISBN-978-81-7977-323-9.

As Murli Das Melwani states in the Preface, the goal of the ebook is to attract attention to the genre of Indian Quick Stories in English by critically surveying historic advancement from 1835 to the present. He delineates the attribute thematic features of many authors in 7 sections divided into many sub-sections. Even so, as the author says in the Preface, “The scope of this ebook is confined to stories collected and posted in the e-book sort.” Neither the reserve contains unclear released limited stories, retold stories, fairytales and extensive shorter stories, nor does it contain translated shorter tales.

In the &#39Introduction&#39, Melwani traces the enhancement of limited tale from Kathasaritsagar to Raja Rao devoid of excluding its advancement as a form in the West. He will take into account early practitioners this sort of as ETW Hoffman, NV Gogol, Merimee, Balzac, Gautier, Edgar Allan Poe, Ambrose Bierce, Stephen Crane, O&#39Henry, and HG Wells etc in the West and Sudhin Ghosh, RK Narayan, Raja Rao and others in India.

The 1st area entitled &#39The Beginnings: 1835-1935&#39 involves authors this kind of as Pallab Sengupta, Soshee Chunder Dutt, Cornelia Sorabjee, SB Banerjea, Dhan Gopal Mukerji, AS Panchpakesa Ayyar, CT Ramabhai etcetera. These early Indian writers in English paved the way for the excellent trio of Indian English Fiction, hardly ever Mulk Raj Anand, RKNarayan, and Raja Rao who are all talked about independently in Segment II of the e-book. In &#39The To start with Flowering: 1935-1945&#39 Melwani consists of this sort of other authors as Manjeri S. Isvaran, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Ela Sen, and Louis Gracious who enriched the nationalist movement of the time period with their writing.

Section III bargains with a number of celebrated authors of the 1950s these types of as Attia Hossain, Khushwant Singh, GD Khosla, and other individuals who mirrored on human figures vis-à-vis economic improvement in the early phase of Submit-Independence India.

Part IV, &#39The Second Flowering: 1960-1970&#39 discounts with some very well recognized writers these types of as RP Jhabvala, Bunny Reuben, Ruskin Bond, Bhabani Bhattacharya who are a lot less moral but a lot more satirical and paradoxical in their remedy of themes.

Portion V is aptly titled as &#39The Blossoming&#39 for the reason that it covers the plethora of quick tale writers these kinds of as Padma Hejmadi, Keki N. Daruwalla, Anita Desai, Hamdi Bey, Kamala Das, Arun Joshi, Manohar Malgaonkar, and others who flourished in the course of the 1970s and 1980s.

They offer with a range of themes such as modifying approaches of smaller city Indian everyday living, human psyche, parables, politics, the army etc.

The pursuing chapter, Part VI &#39An Prolonged Spring&#39 usually takes into account modern writers this kind of as Vikram Chandra, Amit Chaudhuri, Githa Hariharan, Anita Nair, Uma Parameswaran, Meher Pestonji, and some others who ponder on themes these as secret, fantasy, migration, homosexuality, tradition as opposed to modernity and so on.

The ultimate area &#39The Prospect&#39 presents details about the history of publishing houses. It also mentions the neglected gals publishers these types of as Kali, Katha, Stree, Tara, Tulika, Yoda, Karadi, Zubaan, Girls Endless, and Biblio. It also talks about the foreseeable future of Indian Limited Tale in English. The part demonstrates on absence of literary prizes in India and mentions favourable developments these as Vodaphone Crossword E-book Award, Indiaplaza Golden Ebook Awards, Readerr&#39s Alternative award and many others for promoting small story writing and examining.

A single of the important options of the ebook is that it includes information about the less recognized writers along with perfectly identified writers. Important surveys frequently address only the effectively acknowledged names.

The Bibliography can be of fantastic support to researchers mainly because it delivers specific facts about anthologies of small tales from the time as early as 1908.

On the adverse side, however, the e-book excludes mention of some very well known modern day writers these kinds of as Jhumpa Lahiri, Arundhati Roy, Farrukh Dhondy, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Rohinton Mistry etc. The reserve would have been strengthened with their discussion even if the motive of the author may have been to acquaint the visitors to lesser identified names which most publications tend to disregard. Nevertheless, it is a major publication, practical to each researcher and students of Indian English Producing.

(jointly with Sudeshna Pandey, M.Phil Researcher)

Resource by Ram Krishna Singh

Taking care of a Pre-Transfer Study – Significant Ideas & Suggestions

The pre-shift study is crucial in order to get exact shifting estimates from professional packers and movers in India. Most removing firms in India present free pre-go survey. Folks typically ignore on pre-move study. But it is vital and incredibly essential to get specific estimate. As soon as, you have resolved to make your relocation with the help of skilled shifting firm you would like to get an estimate from for your shift. Before getting an estimate from any a person of removal firms in your place you ought to invite the enterprise consultant for a pre-transfer survey. Make confident that skilled elimination companies have the subsequent information and facts and procedures. This will aid you locate out the experience level of a expert removal corporation.

Before the study it is considerable that the survey consultant calls and verifies for the following: –

1. Time and Day of Relocation
2. Tackle of Old House and New Household
3. Length involving Aged Dwelling and New Household
4. Excess weight of Goods to be Transported
5. Specific Requirements like Pets Relocating, Crops Going, Warehousing, Insurance Facility, etcetera

For a specific estimate to be established to meet up with you requirements and budgets, it is crucial that all issues are taken into correct issue by the survey advisor of professional transferring business. You should really validate the shifting organization about length concerning your outdated property and new home. You ought to advise your mover about amount that you would like you shift. Also you should tell about your special needs like pet moving, plant relocating, warehousing requires, items insurance policy require, and so on. For lengthy distance move it is significant to make pre-move survey. But for tiny length transfer, it can be typically finished over the cellphone get in touch with. In this way you will be absolutely get a proper & ideal estimate which will support you prepare you spending budget and make planning for your relocation. The principal objective of pre-transfer study is to deliver you correct estimate and in-depth & published information and facts about your shift masking just about every and just about every facet involved in your move.

On pre-go study you can also get specific data about your mover which services you are going to hire. The business agent will inform you about its organization business registration, registration, encounter, range of staffs, prior clients & shoppers. In fact, pre-transfer study is also the correct time to study your mover or discover trustworthiness of the move which providers you will retain the services of to make your relocation.

I hope this short article will assist you prepare your pre-shift survey to get specific estimate from the suitable and really expert removing corporation in your spot.

Source by Santosh Ets

ShoreLine Change Monitoring in Coastal India, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Tools


Shoreline or coastline, the boundary between land and sea keeps changing its shape and position continuously due to dynamic environmental conditions. The change in shoreline is mainly associated with waves, tides, winds, periodic storms, sealevel change, the geomorphic processes of erosion and accretion and human activities. Shoreline also depicts the recent formations and destruction that have happened along the shore. Waves change the coastline morphology and forms the distinctive coastal landforms. The loose granular sediments continuously respond to the ever-changing waves and currents. The beach profile is important, in that it can be viewed as an effective natural mechanism, which causes waves to break and dissipate their energy. When breakwaters are constructed, they upset the natural equilibrium between the sources of beach sediment and the littoral drift pattern. In response, shoreline changes its configuration in attempt to reach a new equilibrium (Ramesh and Ramachandran 2001). Monitoring changes in shoreline helps to identify the nature and processes that caused these changes in any specific area, to assess the human impact and to plan management strategies. Remote sensing data could have been used effectively to monitor the changes along the coastal zone including shoreline with reasonable accuracy. Remote sensing data helps and / or replaces the conventional survey by its repetitive and less cost-effectiveness. Here, in order to study the coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal area, the shoreline change, wave action, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology were analyzed using Remote Sensing and GIS tools.

Study area

Tuticorin coast has a major port and it is a rapidly developing area. The study area falls in the latitudinal and longitudinal extensions of 8 ° 40 '- 8 ° 55' N and 78 ° 0 '- 78 ° 15' E on the Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India (fig 1). Major Industries such as Southern Petrochemical Industrial Corporation, Thermal Power Plant, Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals and Heavy Water Plant are also present in this area. Due to the accelerated development activities the coastal area experience significant changes.

Tuticorin was a center of maritime trade and pearl fishery for more than 2000 years. To cope with increasing trade through Tuticorin, the government of India sanctioned the construction of an all weather port at Tuticorin. On 11-7-1974, the newly constructed Tuticorin port was declared as the tenth major port. On 1-4-1979, the erstwhile Tuticorin minor port and the newly constructed Tuticorin major port were introduced and the Tuticorin Port Trust was established under the major port trusts act, 1963.



Geocoded IRS LISS III May 2002 imagery was used to prepare coastal geomorphology map adopting visual interpretation technique. In the present study, the classification system developed by the Space Application Center, Ahmedabad for the nation wide coastal geomorphic mapping was adopted for the study (SAC 1991).

Shoreline change

Survey of India toposheets No. L1 & L5 of (1969) (lat: 8 ° 40 '- 8 ° 55', long: 78 ° 0 '- 78 ° 15'; Scale 1: 50,000) were used as a base map. They was digitized, edited, geometrically projected and transformed through ARC INFO to maintain real world coordinates. To eliminate the effect of tidal influence in shoreline change study, low tide satellite data were used. SOI toposheets 1969, Landsat 5 TM May 1993, IRS P2 LISS II May 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2002 satellite data were used to assess the changes in shoreline for 33 years period from 1969 to 2002. Raster data procured through satellites were geometrically corrected using the Survey of India toposheet as a base. More than 25 ground control points were taken and the Root Mean Square (RMS) error for geometric correction is 0.002. Band 1 of IRS P2 LISS II 1996, band 5 of LANDSAT 5 TM 1993 and band 3 of IRS 1C LISS III 2002 were used. These different bands were used based on their contrast between land and ocean. In these bands the information content is more in land as compared to water. The Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 data were vectorised by adopting onscreen digitization technique with single pixel zoom level using ERDAS imagination 8.4 software. The vector layers of the shoreline got through on screen digitization in ERDAS imagination and vectorisation through ArcInfo were imported as Arc coverage for the above four data sets. Each of the data sets had a polygon ID 1 for Land area and 2 for Ocean. The shoreline obtained from Survey of India toposheet of 1969 and the shoreline demarcated through the satellite data of Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996, and IRS 1C 2002 were kept in different coverage in the same projection and map coordinates. These four coverages were overlaid through Arc info GIS. Shoreline change map of 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 were generated. The resolution differs for different satellite data products. For LANDSAT 5 TM, IRS P2 and IRS 1C resolutions were 30m, 73.5m and 23.5m respectively. Although there is resolution difference, edge detection technique gives a clear demarcation of land and water boundary. The shoreline features were brought to Arcview GIS for further querying and analysis.

Wave pattern recognition

Remote Sensing is becoming a major tool in identifying the coastal processes spatially. Infrared band gives the maximum information on ocean parameters, so band 3 of IRS P2 1996, band 2 of IRS 1C of 2001 and band 2 of IRS 1C 2002 were used for the identification of wave patterns. Noise reduction technique is applied to the IRS P2 May 1996, IRS 1C May 2001 and IRS 1C May 2002 data for enhancing the image. Convolution filtering technique with 3 * 3 kernel edge detect is applied to IRS P2 May 1996, IRS 1C May 2001 and IRS 1C May 2002 for enhancing the wave characteristics for interpretation.

Coastal Bathymetry

For coastal bathymetry studies Naval Hydrographic Organization (NHO) chart 1999 is interpolated, interpreted and analyzed using Arcinfo and Arcview GIS. The NHO chart number is 2075, scale is 1: 50000 and the density of spot soundings is 4 per This chart was surveyed in 1975-1976, in transverse mercator projection, updated in 1999 and the tidal levels referred to datum of soundings is Lat 8 ° 48 'and Long 78 ° 10' and the heights in meters above datum is MHWS 1.0, MHWN 0.7, MLWN 05, MLWS 03 and MSL 0.6 respectively. TIN interpolation technique is adopted for spatial interpolation and DEM generation. Zero is defined as datum or the reference to which the depth is measured. Representation of the seabed in this model is in the form of elevation matrix formed by overlaying a square grid mesh over the surface and recording the elevation value for each grid cell. The cell values ​​are organized in matrix form where the row and column numbers implying the xy co-ordinate of the cell respectively. The elevation matrix is ​​produced by interpolation from irregularly spaced bathymetric data points over a contour map. The three dimensional view and the slope of bathymetry is derived by applying TIN spatial analysis model using Arc View 3.2a software.

Results and Discussion

Coastal Geomorphology

Sandy beach

Sandy beaches are the product of waves interacting with a sandy beach at the shoreline. The sandy beaches are extensively developed along the entire coast of study area except at some places. Tuticorin is covered by long and intensive sandy beach. It trends in north-south direction. Well developed sandy beach is identified below south harbor breakwater. This beach is dominated by an admixture of quartz, feldspars and mica minerals. The beach is found as thick white patch at south of south harbor breakwater in satellite imagery (fig.2).


A spit is a small point of low tongue or narrow bank, commonly consisting of sand or gravel deposited by a long-shore drifting and having one end attached to the mainland and other terminating in the open sea. It is identified in white patch in satellite imagery (fig.2). Two spit formations have been observed in south of the urban coast. Normally the formation of spit has been attributed to the movement and deposition of materials by longshore current (Thornbury 1969). Spit indicates seaward progressation (Loveson and Rajamanickam 1987). The spit near Tuticorin is 0.75 to 2 km long and tongue shaped. Tuticorin spit has been rejected by long shore currents during monsoon and the sediments discharged by Tamiraparani River.

Beach ridges

Beach ridges are moderately undulating terrain features of marine depositional type, formed during pliestocene to recent age, in the plains of the study area. They are low, essentially continuous beach or beach dune materials (sand, gravel and shingle) heaped up by the action of wave and currents on the backshore of a beach beyond the present limit of storm waves or the reach of ordinary tides, and occurring as a single or as one of a series of approximately parallel deposits (Chockalingam 1993). The beach ridges have been recognized as representing successful still-stand position of sea of ​​an advancing shoreline from satellite imagery. Beach ridges of Tuticorin are highly reworked.


Mudflat is a flat area containing a fluid to plastic mixture of finely derived particles of solid material mainly silt and clay water. They are always associated with silted environments like lagoons, estuaries and other embankments. Mudflats are formed by the deposition of fine inorganic material and organic debris in particulate form. Mud flats are wide expense of deposit of clay, silt, ooze, etc (Davies 1972). Mudflats are well developed at the river mouth of Koramballam Oodai, an estuarine environment. They appear as dark black tone in satellite imagery.

Dune complex

Dune complex is an important geomorphic unit consisting of active and loose sediment heaps with negligible amount of vegetation. In this zone, the aeolian activity is reportedly high resulting in migration without a major change in their shapes. It indicates the age of late Pliestocene to Recent (Loveson 1993). Tuticorin is located in dune complex.
Teri dune complex

Teri dune complex is an undulating terrain having loose heaps of red color sand and silt dust of aeolian origin. They represent Pliestocene to Recent age of formation (Loveson 1993; Loveson et al., 1990). They appeared as round to oval shaped mounts with dense vegetation. It is assumed that the fierce and continuous winds of south west monsoon by sweeping up vast clouds of dust from the dry surface of the red loam, exposed at the base of the hills must have bought and deposited their load of sediments near the coast over the plain to form Teri dune complex (Ahmad 1972). All dune complexes in this area are trending in the northeast to southeast direction. In recent years, these Teri dune complexes are being utilized for cultivation also. It is identified in greenish yellow color in satellite imagery.

Shoreline change

Shoreline is one of the important dynamic coastal features where the land, air and sea meet. In any open coast, when manmade structures such as harbor or breakwaters interfere with the littoral currents shoreline changes drastically. Chauhan and Nayak (1995) have studied the shoreline changes using the satellite data covering low tide period. During the low tide condition, maximum land is exposed and even low water line / land water boundary and high water line are distinctly visible. This enables better mapping of the shoreline. The demarcation and the areal extent of the sites of erosion and appreciation are queried and estimated through Arc View GIS package (fig. 3). The total areas of erosion during the periods 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in table 1. It was observed that during 1969 to 1993 the erosion along the coastline of Tuticorin area was 9 ha. During the period of 1993 to 1996 it was 14 ha and in the period 1996 to 2002 it was 18 ha. Most of the erosion was observed in sand spit, Hare Island and at urban coast (fig. 3). The total areas of accretion during the periods 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in table 2. The accretion during the different periods were 138 ha (1969 to 1993)

18 ha (1993 to 1996) and 23 ha (1996 to 2002) (fig. 3). Since accretion was more than the eruption, the entire shoreline could have been considered as the shore of progressation. Rajamanickam (1991) observed the features of emergence and submergence respectively along the southern parts of Tamilnadu. He also suggested upwarping along Tuticorin area.

For analyzing the shoreline change in the study area, specific sites such as south harbor breakwater, Hare Island, sand spit and urban coast were studied for erosion and accretion. Urban coast is the coastline of the urban area. It is demarcated and shown in the figure 3. The areal extent of erosion and accretion observed in the abovesaid areas are presented in Table 3 and 4. Both erosion and accretion factors were avoided in estuarine environment since demarcation of shoreline is not accurately possible in estuarine environment because this area is highly dynamic.

In sand spit (fig. 4 & 5), during 1969 to 1993 erosion was 4 ha and the accretion was 7 ha, during 1993 to 1996 eration was 4 ha and accretion was 3 ha and during 1996 to 2002 erosion was 5 ha. and accretion was 2 ha (Table 3 & 4). In sand spit the erosion is not noticed at wave exposed side and accretion is noticed at leeward side of the spit. This may be due to the transport of eroded sediments from the wave exposed side to the leeward side of the spit.

Tombalo structure formation is noted in between Tuticorin mainland and Hare Island
(fig. 2). This is due to longshore sedimentation from south to north resulting in the Hare Island and the mainland to link. It took geological years to link the mainland and Hare Island. In Hare Island (Fig. 4 & 5), during the period of 1969 to 1993 erosion was 4 ha, during 1993 to 1996 erosion was 6 ha and during 1996 to 2002 erosion was 6 ha (Table 3). There is no accreditation activity observed in Hare Island.

In South harbor breakwater (fig. 4 & 5), during the period of 1969 to 1993 accretion was 81 ha, during 1993 to 1996 accretion was 8 ha and during 1996 to 2002 accretion was 18 ha. There is no erosion observed (Table 4). The accretion here takes place in curvilinear manner. Accretion in curvilinear manner along the shoreline results in a formation of beach and similar paleo beach ridges were not noted along the beach. The curvilinear formation of this paleo beach ridges is termed geomorphologically as strandlines.

At urban coast (Fig. 4 & 5), erosion was 1 ha and accretion was 15 ha during 1969 to 1993, erosion was 3 ha and accretion was 6 ha from 1993 to 1996, and the erosion was 3 ha and accretion was 3 ha for the period 1996 to 2002. The observation shows that the eration is lower and accretion is higher in this site (Table 3 & 4). It is also observed that there is not much shoreline change in the urban environment. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1987 and 1988a) and Loveson et al (1990) have also reported the changes in shoreline of south Indian coast based on deposition of landforms like beach ridges, occurrence of backwater zone etc., through remote sensing based geomorphological interpretation. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1988b) have also pointed out the possible fall of sea level in Tuticorin coast due to neotectonic emerging of the seafloor. The prevailing winds noticed at Tuticorin area were maximum at North West, North East and North directions respectively. Prevailing winds were also noted at South West, South and South East directions but the majority of the months experience NW, NE and N winds only. The wind speed ranges from 9-16 km / hr.

Table 1: Erosion observed at Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Erosion

1969-1993 9 ha.

1993-1996 14 ha.

1996-2002 18 ha.

Table 2: Accuracy observed at Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Accretion

1969-1993 138 ha.

1993-1996 18 ha.

1996-2002 24 ha.

Table 3: Erosion observed at specific sites in Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Spit Hare Island Urban Coast

1969-1993 4 ha. 4 ha. 1 ha.

1993-1996 4 ha. 6 ha. 3 ha.

1996-2002 5 ha. 6 ha. 3 ha.

1969-2002 13 ha. 16 ha. 7 ha.

Table 4: Accuracy observed at specific sites in Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Spit Below South harbor breakwater Urban Coast

1969-1993 7 ha. 81 ha. 15 ha.

1993-1996 3 ha. 8 ha. 6 ha.

1996-2002 2 ha. 18 ha. 3 ha.

1969-2002 12 ha. 107 ha. 24 ha.

Wave pattern

Depending on the wave pattern, which was present in imagery, various features such as reflected waves, diffracted waves and shadow zone were identified. These features play a major role in shaping the shoreline, which also depends on the geographical features that exist along the coast.

Wave refraction

In the study area wave refraction is observed in the tip of the northern harbor breakwater. Wave propagation and its refraction pattern is clearly identified in IRS P2 May 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2002 satellite imageries (fig. 6, 7 & 8). The linear progressive wave from the offshore area is almost progressing with an angle of 115 ° with respect to the mainland. The angularity of the wave propagation is measured through Arc View GIS 3.2 software. They propagate in SW to NE, towards mainland. The north breakwater is exactly perpendicular (90 °) to the direction of the wave (fig. 6, 7 & 8). When the wave touches the north breakwater the wave breaks running along the breakwater. The refracted wave passes along with harbor breakwater, almost two kilometers in distance and dissipates its energy (fig. 6, 7 & 8). In the south break water a shoal is present and this shoal hinders the refracted waves and dissipates its energy. This refracted wave does not cause any coastal geomorphic change to the headland because it does not touch it.

Wave diffraction

Diffraction of water waves is a process by which energy flow laterally along wave crest. Most obvious example is when waves are intercepted by an impervious structure such as breakwater. Presence of an obstruction scatters wave disturbance and give rise to fanning of wave trains on the lee or shadow of the obstruction. Diffraction is a common phenomenon around islands and can create substantial disturbance to the coastal region which adds further to the dynamic nature of the coast. IRS P2 May 1996, IRS LISS III 2001 and IRS LISS III 2002 data gives a clear representation of diffracted waves in the study area. Diffraction of wave is observed in the Vann Island and as well as the Hare Island. Since these islands were the major source of obstruction for the ocean waves, they give rise to fanning of wave trains (fig. 6, 7 & 8). Wave diffracts around with face of Hare Island and dissipates energy. Change in shoreline is clearly shown in fig. 3. The erosion that has been identified in sand spit and Hare Island are only due to wave diffraction. This is interpreted through IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C 2001 and IRS 1C 2002 coastal processes study and 1969 to 2002 shoreline change study. Erosion / accretion problem in the study area is not due to harbor location and its activity. Accretion observed at the leeward side of sand spit is due to this diffraction (Fig. 5). The deposition of sediments is also due to the convergence of the diffracted wave in the windward side of the sand spit.

Shadow zone

When two waves converge with one another, the energy at the place of convergence becomes negligible and the waves become calm. The point at which the two waves get converged is known as point of convergence and the area at which this phenomena occurs is known as the shadow zone. Shadow zone is very well identified from IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C LISS III 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 imageries. In the study area the shadow zone is observed in between Hare island and Vann island and also below the south harbor breakwater. When the diffracted wave from both the Hare Island and Vann Island converges, shadow zone is formed. The point of convergence and the shadow zone is clearly shown in the figure 6. The same phenomenon was observed below the southern breakwater. Here when the linear progressive wave Touches the south of harbor breakwater the wave breaks. Since the hinterland is curvilinear the waves from the south breakwater's country converges with the linear progressive waves and forms a shadow zone (fig. 6, 7 & 8). There is not much problem because of this shadow zone formation in the study area.


Monitoring of coastal bathymetry is vital for designing of ports and coastal structures. It is also important for the exploration and exploitation of non-living and living resources, to understand the dynamics of ocean processes in the continental shelves, for ship mooring and assessment of marine living habitats. In a GIS, the modeling of the Z-axis has become an important element. When the 3-D model is specifically applied to represent terrain, then this digital representation of the elevation is termed as a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The 3D Tuticorin Bathymetry Elevation Model derived from Naval Hydrographic Chart is shown in figure 9. The slope analysis of Tuticorin port and its environment inferred from the 3-dimensional bathymetry model reveals that the slope is significantly declining in the direction of NW to SE. Gentle slope (1 – 4 °) is observed adjacent to the urban coast as well as above and below the harbor area (fig. 9). Attenuation of waves is more when it reaches the nearshore area and where the depth is minimum and the different wave patterns observed because of this attenuation is clearly seen using satellite remote sensing (fig. 8).

Waves observed from the satellite imagery and shoreline change were integrated and the effect of wave over the erosion / accretion site gives the reason for the site to be eroding or accreting. Moreover bathymetry also supports this. The analysis of wave action from 1996 – 2002 provides the information that the wave action is similar from the geologic past. Moreover the study area has also specific pattern of accretion as observed through strandlines present in south of Tuticorin harbor. So this wave data gives a clear idea about the shoreline change in the present study. From the vicinity of the harbor, in the direction of NW to SE, steep slopes were observed further offshore (fig. 9). The net sediment transport is from south to north. Delta sedimentation is also observed near Koramballam Odai and this river mouth is sheltered with depth value less than 2m. This is very well identified through satellite imagery. Sediment transport and the slope variants inferred from the urban coastal and harbor environment clearly show that the opportunities are less for sediments to enter into harbor breakwater (fig. 9). Here is not much dredging activity is required in Tuticorin harbor area.


The coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal area, the shoreline change, wave action, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology were analyzed using Remote Sensing and GIS tools. The erosion and accretion observed at Tuticorin using temporal satellite imageries show that the shoreline dynamics is natural and this is not due to human interference. Coastal processes play a major role in shaping the coastal configuration of this area. The integrative approach using Remote Sensing and GIS tools clearly illustrates both the cause and reasons for the shoreline change. The results of this study will be more useful for shoreline management.

Source by K Selvavinayagam