Category Archives: Blog

Economic Survey has estimated 2019-20

Economic Survey

Investment rate should pick up in FY20 on higher credit growth and improved demand, the Survey, projecting the state of the economy and outlining the challenges facing it, is believed to have said

Economic Survey

The Economic Survey for 2018-19, tabled in Parliament on Thursday, is said to have estimated the gross domestic product (GDP) growth for 2019-20 at 7 percent, mainly on a stable macroeconomic situation in the country. Television reports say that the Survey has attributed an economic slowdown in the January-March quarter partly to election-related uncertainty.

learn More- Budget 2019: Income tax changes you can expect

Investment rate should pick up in FY20 on higher credit growth and improved demand, the Survey, projecting the state of the economy and outlining the challenges facing it, is believed to have said. A decline in the banking sector’s non-performing assets (NPAs) should help push the capital expenditure cycle, making case for an accommodative monetary policy to help cut real lending rates, according to TV reports citing the Economic Survey authored by Chief Economic Advisor Krishnamurthy Subramanian

Economic Survey 2019 sees lower global growth and increased uncertainty over trade tensions affecting India’s exports, and lower global oil prices boosting consumption, Reuters said citing sources. The Survey is also believed to have estimated that India will need to grow at 8 percent annually to become a $5-trillion economy by FY25.

The Economic Survey of India 2018 was tabled in the Parliament on 29th January 2018 by Finance minister Arun Jaitley. Economic Survey is a document which is presented in the Parliament prior to the Budget every year.

The document outlines major economic indicators, flagship programs, happenings, challenges and policies of the previous 12 months; it also communicates future economic indicators and much more. The Economic Survey of India 2018, prepared by Arvind Subramanian the Chief Economic Adviser to the Government of India had bright pink cover to send the message of empowerment of women.

Budget 2019: Income tax changes you can expect


According to economists, the authorities could increase this limit further to incentivise buying housing properties for fostering demand in the industry. Someone can claim this deduction from the year in the building of the home is completed. More tax advantages towards healthcare Income tax exemption limit Tax-free bonds may witness a comeback Higher income tax deduction One of the key aims of the authorities in the budget will be to enhance infrastructure jobs as it holds key to boosting job growth and pushing up demand.

Since the real-estate industry has been affected negatively because of a demand slowdown, the government could offer more tax benefits to buyers and provide a much-needed increase to the industry. But, people should notice that such a movement is unlikely given the economic delinquencies which need to be tackled by the authorities. While the government may not honour all their requests, it is very likely to take particular steps to facilitate taxation on the middle-income group.

Economists imply that not many changes will be introduced in tax given the current financial situation. Greater deduction on home loans The tool will help the authorities raise capital through government entities for infrastructure projects. Such bonds are known as’tax-free’ as the interest earned on them isn’t taxable. The limit could be increased from the present Rs 25,000, related to individuals aged below 60 years, under Section 80(D).


The concession could also be raised under Section 80(D) for individuals over age 60 years. The present limit of exemption for individuals over 60 years is Rs 50,000. Individuals exempting a increase in exemption limit may end up being disappointed however, the government could cheer them up by introducing greater deductions under many sections of the Income Tax Act. In such a scenario, it wouldn’t be a surprise when tax-free bonds witness a comeback. The income tax deduction permitted under Section 80(C), now at Rs 1.5 lakh, might be raised to Rs two lakhs or above.

Learn More- A touch of realty: What can we expect from Budget 2019?


They have demanded the government to increase the overall tax exemption threshold or present tax breaks to reduce strain in their home expenses. Since a full tax rebate up to Rs 5 lakh was released under Section 87A at the interim budget, it’s not likely that there will any other change in the exemption. But citizens and many industry bodies want the government to boost the tax exemption threshold from the existing Rs 2.5 lakh to at least Rs 3 lakhs.

But, tax experts said the government may present some sops to improve demand and speed up economic growth. Having said that, here are a Couple of likely income tax changes which could be announced by Nirmala Sitharaman: Considering that the government would like to grow the nation’s tax base, such a move is highly improbable. There are high chances that the government will boost deduction under tax saving instruments offered in healthcare.

Industry bodies have already asked the government to boost tax saving under Section 80(D) of the Income Tax Act. Many are hopeful that the government would make amends to increase the limitation but it would cause a reduction in the current tax base as more individuals will be exempted from paying income tax. The majority of the requirements which have been suggested in the run-up to July 5 pertain to reduce taxation, especially those belonging to the middle-income group.

property Portal In India

You’ll also have to worry about the amount of attention your website will receive. Often times, when you receive services your account is seen as just another in the pile of customers.

Do chandigarh real estate need HDTV? A flat panel LCD TV with EDTV is more affordable, but it can not display high-definition signals . The price gap between flat panel HD-ready LCDs and ED-ready LCDs is low, so you are better off buying a set that is HD-ready . In fact , most experts say there’s little reason to get a LCD television. These lower resolution LCD TVs won’t have the ability to accept high-definition signals , so the picture will not look any better than regular analog TV. And little HD-ready LCD TVs are available for $500 or less, which is cheap enough that there really isn’t much to”save” on a non-HD LCD TV.

Maybe all he wants is a source of sex. Maybe he wants is someone to do things and at the same time make him feel like he’s needed.

Don’t just watch monies. You will need to watch other markets also . The markets, such as Property In chandigarh stocks , commodities, and currencies are linked in more ways than one. The other markets are led by some of the markets. Knowing which markets are which are followers and, leaders is important, so you will need to do your own research.

You’ll want to invest in a pair of soccer shoes that fits well, is designed for your particular skill level and accommodates the field type and weather conditions in because so much of the game depends on your feet. You will want to do your homework first and then invest in the best soccer shoes for your game and you.

With the recession that’s happening part time job for realtors is becoming a real need with many. With mortgages foreclosing it appears that available signs are popping up like mushrooms. With nobody interested in buying because they can’t afford to purchase. While real estate is now a part of the net and tool to assist.

We all have dreamed of becoming wealthy and there is. It’s important to know that many individuals have a mindset that has helped them obtain great wealth. The person will have goals and they’re ready to work at there targets until they are achieved by them. They will have a positive outlook on any circumstance and will look as half full. They don’t listen.

Contact is one of those classic methods of selling endeavor, in any sort. The private and most simple method since it involves going around, knocking at doors, staying for a little chat and introducing yourself and largely your merchandise. Leave contact information and follow up them .

What Kind of Online Writing Jobs Are Available? (Part Two)

In the first part of this article, I spoke about the following online writing jobs: –

  • Articles
  • Web Content
  • Blog Posts
  • Press Releases
  • Sales Pages

There are several other kinds of online writing jobs that are available, although they may not be as popular as these ones. Here is a list of them.


EBooks, or electronic books, are online documents that carry detailed information on a particular subject. They are usually quite long, some of them may run to hundreds of pages, and are written just like a book. They will need to have a foreword, a contents page and a postword. Everything will need to be divided into chapters. To write an eBook, you will need to have a lot of knowledge on the subject and should have an aptitude to teaching. Since this is voluminous work, you are paid very well as.

Reports and Technical Writing

Again this is something that requires a lot of knowledge on the subject. These are things that professionals in the particular field will refer to. You have to be ready for questions and clarifications as well. Even the people who have such writing assignments will typically be experts in the subject. So, when you are writing, your work will be very closely scrutinized. Again, the pay is high.


You can take up these very simple jobs too. Research a particular product on the Internet and find out more about them. Then, form an opinion about the product and fill out a survey form. This is not much writing, but you will have to have an opinion. Pay is generally good, but you will not find a lot of these jobs going around.


Some websites that are based on quizzes will constantly have a demand for these as well. One example is where you can apply directly. Pay is not very high for preparing quizzes, at least not commensurate with the kind of knowledge and work input you are providing, but if you have a penchant for asking trick questions, then this could be the right thing for you.

Product Descriptions

You may be asked to write these as well. The description is usually for the website of the product or for an online store where it will be sold such as Amazon or eBay. It is a good idea to check out these places first and see how other products are described and then follow the pattern.

Product Reviews

Many people who buy products online first read their reviews and try to get and know the products better. This is where the requirement for writing reviews stems from. You can have an opinion here and most people will not mind if you write negative reviews as well. Pay is adequate, not as good as for writing technical stuff or reports.

So, here they are … the different kinds of online writing jobs that you can find. Look at them closely and see what you would like to do.

Source by Neil D'Silva

The Impact of the Internet on Marketing Research

Probably the most important impact of the internet on marketing research is that it has taken it from the realm of academic studies, with set subject pools and relatively rigid experimental conditions, into the realm of real life, with people interacting with one another on the level of regular day-to-day interactions. While it is obviously possible to still apply controlled, scripted situations to marketing research, the more effective way is to find methods of collecting and evaluating data gathered in the more natural environment of virtual interactions.

In some ways, this makes marketing research harder, as new techniques must be developed, and as with many new innovations, there is a large ratio of failure to be expected. In other ways, however, this makes marketing research easier, particularly because, thanks to such developments like social networking sites, gathering the necessary data for marketing research has almost become ‘one-stop shopping’. Marketing researchers are now able, with a fairly large degree of accuracy, to gather enough information to determine how successful a product or service is going to be, who are the existing and potentially future competitors, how long the various levels of market demand will last, what the best distribution channels will be, what type of an advertising campaign will be most effective, how big an advertising budget to allocate to each particular product launch, and what the next step is going to be in terms of either phasing out the product or service or changing/enhancing it to maintain demand.

The Internet also allows marketing research to proceed alongside the partial implementation of the actual marketing campaigns by creating various low-cost advertising options. For example, while creating a YouTube ad is one step in a marketing research effort, driving viewers to the ad is another matter. Unless one has a very wide social network to which an e-mail can be sent informing them of the ad creation, the low-cost way to have people view the ad in large numbers is by utilizing pay search engines or pay-per-view (or pay-per-click) advertising websites. There is even a way to reduce message dilution if one is willing to pay a little more for a targeted audience based on the demographic information that some of the advertising sites. Even without it, however, there is an excellent chance to ensure thousands of views for one’s ad while spending a very small fraction of what it would cost to purchase the cheapest broadcast media advertisement. The response from such a method may be minuscule, but since the expenditures are so low, the actual ROI can potentially be higher than that of a TV ad, for example.

The advantage of such a method, however, is not in the low cost of running an ad with an Internet advertising company, but rather in the long-term benefits acquiring a large number of views offers. Firstly, through the functionality specific to YouTube but also available on other social networking sites, an ad with a drastically increased number of views can make it into the various merit categories on the website’s main page, such as ‘most popular this week’ or ‘most advanced in views’ and thus attract attention of all users without the effort of attracting them through an e-mail campaign or further paid online advertising. Furthermore, since YouTube allows members to comment on every video they view, an ad on YouTube can generate large amounts of feedback. It is unlikely that all of this feedback will be useful, but sometimes even one useful comment can allow a marketer to make the adjustments that would greatly benefit the campaign once it is ready to be launched fully.

Another great innovation that the Internet has created is online surveys. Marketing research has been conducted using surveys in the past as well, either through direct mail or utilizing focus groups. Online surveys represent a significant advantage over both methods, both in coming up with the needed target audience and with reducing operational costs for such research. The best way to ensure that people will actually participate in a survey is to offer them some sort of an incentive. Money is the most common and most effective incentive, but sending money to people ahead of their actually completing a survey, and without a way to guarantee that the survey actually will be completed, is a sure way to increase one’s research costs without adding data. On the other hand, offering compensation at some later date, after the survey has been completed, sent, and processed, may be too much of a delay in compensation to provide enough incentive for an individual to complete the survey. Online surveys rectify both scenarios by allowing compensation to be processed automatically upon the successful completion of a survey. On one hand, the marketing researcher does not suffer an unnecessary expense of awarding compensation and receiving no data. On the other hand, the person filling out the survey does not have to wait for compensation and is likely to be more ready and willing to complete this survey, as well as any future surveys from the same marketer.

Another important element of conducting a survey is coming up with the target audience that most accurately fits the profile of a consumer needed for this particular survey. With a focus group, such target audience concentration can be achieved, but the need to deal with actual people in a physical environment limits the actual size of this audience; such things as renting a space and purchasing supplies – including, in some cases, refreshments – would have to be added to compensation to the participants as the costs of conducting a survey. With an online survey, the vetting process can be conducted at the beginning of the survey by requiring the participant to answer demographic questions, as well as others pertaining to this particular survey, such as recent purchasing activities, for example. With the system programmed to exclude participants who give certain answers, these individuals can be vetted out with just a few minutes of their time taken – and often even less than that. Such an approach would cost the researcher nothing, and if the disqualified participants were offered to participate in future studies or given token compensation, such as an entry into a sweepstakes, they might actually continue to participate in future studies, some of which may need people with their demographic specifics. This allows the marketing researcher not only to choose the best possible targeted audience for a particular survey, but also to retain the pool of potential respondents for future use.

In the future, as the Internet itself develops, it is likely to play an ever-increasing role in marketing research. It is not only possible but practically inevitable that marketing itself will change in the foreseeable future, with more emphasis on individual communications, social networking, and viral marketing. The best examples of the changing marketing environment right now probably can be found in the movie industry, with such films as “Snakes on a Plane” and “Cloverfield” being marketed exclusively through the Internet and relying to a great degree on social networking websites spreading the word. The relative box office success of both films shows that this approach is viable and, with some adjustments, can be used by other industries as well.

Source by Rituraj Shrivastava

How to Make Lots of Money and Traffic With Flixya

Flixya is a social networking website that allows us to publish and monetize our content. Best thing about Flixya is that you will be able to make a big amount of money by showing Google AdSense ads on your profile page.

So here are some tips that will help you drive some traffic to your profile on Flixya and thus will help you earn more money with Flixya:

  1. Submit Original content: You should submit only quality and original content with some entertainment factor in it. You should avoid submitting a content piece which includes Porn or is against their policies as in that case you will risk losing your Google AdSense and Flixya account. So focus on quality content only.
  2. Content sharing: Once you have submitted some content pieces on Flixya, you should think about ways to bring traffic to your articles and videos. As far as the videos are concerned, they allow you to share and upload your videos from YouTube, Google Videos, DailyMotion, Metacafe, Revver, Break, Livevideo, Bolt, Veoh etc. You can bring some traffic on your content by sharing it with your friends on Flixya and other Social networks. You can even think of mailing your work on Flixya to your mailing list.
  3. Add Descriptive Titles: You should avoid adding 1-2 word titles for your content that you are submitting on Flixya. You should think of adding descriptive and accurate titles for your submitted content. Suppose you are submitting an article about Traffic Building, Instead of using a two work title “Traffic Building”, you should use some descriptive title like Top 26 ways to bring traffic to your website. It looks fine and will generate more views as compared to one or two word long titles.
  4. Include Description: Don’t forget to add an attractive description about video or photo that you are submitting here on Flixya. Videos with good description do well in general. So it’s a good practice to give your videos a real description instead of using some general descriptions like ‘Nice video’, ‘cool video’, ‘great video’ etc
  5. Include tags: people use keywords or tags to search their favorite videos and photos on any website (like YouTube) or search engine. So it is a good practice to add tags with your videos that you submit with descriptive Titles and Descriptions.

Source by Anil Garg

Areas to Explore For a Good Job

Getting a job is dream for every one. There are many options before us, to choose a job. It is better to choose a job which suits for your abilities. There are many ways to get one job. There are so many publications which help job seekers by publishing job opportunities.

This is an old fashion and applicable now also. But it is better to seek the help of job recruitment agencies. They can help you more than any publications. First step for a good job is to register your name in a job recruitment company. They have a separate division for each kind of job. Some of them are oil & gas recruitment, engineering recruitment, aerospace engineering recruitment, transport recruitment and construction recruitment. Oil and gas recruitment division deals with the recruitment of jobs related to oil and gas mining field.

These jobs are highly in demand because of its nature. It demands a liking for traveling around the globe and you can earn a good amount of money from them. There are different kinds of jobs inside this field itself. Jobs in this industry mainly classified into two, upstream and down stream. Downstream jobs mean the jobs involved in the processing of crude oil. It is a huge task which has so many stages.

Some other works under this category is transportation of gas or oil using pumping systems and pipe lines. Liquefaction and processing of gas in petrochemical plants also needs large work force. On the other hand, upstream jobs include exploration of source of oil by geological surveys and other methods. Finding out a reserve is the main aim of this job. Implementation of new projects to find out the oil or gas fields comes under this category.

Transportation is another important in this modern world. Driving jobs are different according to the time of the work, the vehicle you drive etc. Some transport recruitment agencies offer both training and placement in local and multinational level. Their transport recruitment section can give more details about the job. Transport recruitment agencies are very helpful to find out a good job. There are so many people getting jobs with the help of transport recruitment jobs.

You can be an engineer, if you are interested to design the things. This field requires proactive and preemptive people. One thing you must do for the job, is registering your name in an engineering recruitment agency. They can easily find out the opportunities around the globe. Engineering recruitment companies are very helpful for finding out a good job. You can tell them about your requirements and where you need to work etc. this will help them to choose an appropriate job for you. But you have to select a good or reputed engineering recruitment company to get a nice job.

Construction needs skilled human force. Construction is an on going process which lasts with manankind. We have to construct something whether it is bridge or home, for the development of the country. Once you choose the job, you can tell your conditions to the construction recruitment representatives. They will choose you a good job without compromising your conditions. Do not say there is no job because there are so many. Only need is you have to find out and groom yourself for it.

Source by Jack Jaron

Government Job Opportunities in Banks and Railways

Government jobs are highly preferred jobs over private jobs in India. For the smooth running of our country's various departments like Railways, Banks, Municipality services, Administrative services, etc. Indian government appoints many candidates and in return offers them handsome salary package. People attract more towards Government jobs in India due to this handsome salary package and many other things, which government jobs insure. Every year a requisite of many candidates created for many departments which banks are the most common one. Railway department is the second most job-creating department of the country. Government jobs with the best salary package also offers:

1. Job Security

2. Promotions at a fixed period of time

3. Provident Fund

4. Employee Insurance

5. Pension

6. Reservation for SC, ST and OBC candidates

7. Reservation of women candidates (in some departments only)

8. Age relaxation

Departments of these jobs are not located in particular region only, in fact persons are allocated to various offices of one department in many regions or states or cities of the country. Specific state, city, or area is assigned to one particular government office. Eg, municipality offices are different for different cities or states and controlled by one main office in the capital region of that particular state. Let us discuss about the most Jobs creating departments of the country:

Railway Jobs: Railway jobs are the government jobs in railway departments. Railway departments are divided according to the specific regions of the country like North, south, east and west. The mid part of the country has central region. Recruitment process in this department is according to these particular regions only. Recruitment criteria in railways vary from post to post. Like for the posts of guards, linemen, loco pilot and many other jobs like these technical qualifications are required. Similar to other administrative posts eligibility criteria is different. Railway departments publish their vacancies in local newspapers also in employment newspapers for job seekers. Further, a written test is conducted followed by an interview and then finally appointment of the candidate.

Bank Jobs: Bank jobs are the most common government jobs of which almost every person is aware. Every year many people retire from bank and this, create vacancies for many candidates at different positions. Like other departments banking sector also offer jobs according to the particular cadre. Like jobs in clerical cadre, specialist officers, probationary officers and even for Group D candidates which includes guard, sweeper, driver, peon, etc. All these jobs have different eligibility criteria. Every bank demands a certain fixed amount of fees for applying for the particular cadre of job. Moreover, the mode of accepting payment is either by demand draft or by Challan only. Each candidate has to submit the job application either as hard copy or online. After completion of this process, banks work on these applications and process examination call letters for the candidates applied. An aptitude test is held at different centers, which is further followed by declaration of results enlisting candidates selected on merit basis for interview.

Government jobs in every department are completed with eight of the above features, which make a candidate to work in these jobs on long-term basis. As per many surveys conducted, more people go for government jobs rather than private jobs. Although private jobs offer early promotions but then also there is lots of competition for government jobs.

Source by Rosey Smith

Online Education – Is It Worth Anything?

The online education market is increasing by "33% a year" according to This expansion is due to the many opportunities that the Internet affords. Earning a degree was once a pipe dream for the stay at home mom with 3 kids or the rural farm worker, but a degree is now available to anyone with an Internet connection. With this increased access also comes increased risk, with so many colleges offering online degree programs there are also just as many crooks offering you quick and easy programs that take your money and leave you with nothing of value. Choosing the right degree program can open new doors, increase your income or just allow you to fulfill a lifelong dream. How do you avoid the crooks and what will an online degree be worth when you have completed it?

If it sees to good to be true it probably is. Most of the scams can be broken in to two categories; the "Degree Mills" and "This is way to easy to be college". The Degree Mill is very simple, you send them some exorbitant amount of money and they mail you a very nice official looking piece of paper with your name on it that say you have a degree. Degree mills are worthless. You receive no education from them. Do not go looking to just buy a degree, you need to earn it. The other scam is what I call "This is way to easy to be college". You may have seen spam email from these so called colleges. They generally advertise learning a degree in some radically quick time frame (6 months) or only taking a small number of classes. If you were to go to one of these schools they still require some exorbitant fee for what you learn and the classes require little or no work / study. In the end your degree may still be worthless. So how do you choose a degree program that will be worth something?

When choosing an online degree program make sure it is accredited by a sanctioned agency. Accreditation helps ensure that the curriculum and the instructors are of high caliber and afford you the best learning opportunity. Accreditation also add more vale to your degree in the eyes of employers and if you wanted to use that degree as a stepping stone you next degree. You still need to be cautious all Accreditations are not equal you should make sure accreditation agency is recognized. Who are the recognizers? "Washington, DC-based Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA), a private nonprofit national organization, and the US Department of Education (USDE)" From

When researching an online program US News & World Report suggest the following:

Do not limit your research to classified ads or survey the Web in search of the right course or program.

See if the online school is accredited and by whom. Check to see if the accrediting agency is officially sanctioned. Lists are available from several accredited organizations.

Check with licensing boards and professional associations to see if the program delivers an acceptable level of training.

Call or write the Better Business Bureau and the attorney general's office to make sure the school is operating legally in a state and to see if anyone has filed a complaint.

Find out if the school is connected to an established, reputable parent company.

If you intend to transfer any online credits earned to another college or university, early on check with that institution to see if they accept those credits.

Ask about the faculty? Who teaches the courses? What degrees do they have? What is their area of ​​expertise?

Refer to the published guides of online, correspondence and other distance delivered courses.

What value will your online degree have? The value of an online degree depends on a person's particular situation. The greatest value will depend on how you will use the degree. According to industries like Internet / New Media, Technology, and High Tech are the highest supporters of an online degree. While an online degree holds the least value in Medicine, Law, and Health Care / Bio Tech industries. Even tho "Thomas L. Russell of North Carolina State University, did studies that disclosed that there is little if any difference in the quality of education received through online distance learning versus traditional classrooms." –

With this mixed result; an online degree is still a great option for those that have little other choices or those who just do not like traditional classes.

For example: "The cost benefit of online programs lies mainly in the opportunity costs saved, as most students are able to keep their jobs while taking online classes." –

"Tonya Gordon ended up with her dream job, doubled her salary, and fees challenged and fulfilled every day." This all happened within a few months of receiving her MBA online through Texas Woman's University (Denton, Texas) "-

Without a doubt the popularity of online degrees is exploding. The mass adoption of this form of learning will cause the less accepting industries to value the online degree equal to a traditional degree. The online degree requires the student to be more aware of the school and degree that they choose to ensure that it will have value to them. Online approved degrees have value and will improve your marketability in the job market and can increase your salary range.

Works Cited

Kneram, Caitlin. "The Value of Online Learning."

May 5th, 2007

Tellefsen, Robyn. "Will Your Degree Have Value?"

May 5th, 2007

Obringer, Lee Ann. "How online degrees work."

May 5th, 2007

Mannix, Margaret. "Buyers, Be wary. Choosing Reputable Distance Learning Programs." US News & World Report, October 15, 2001, p68.

Source by D. Pereda

It Is Easy to Write a Literature Review – Here's How

A literature review is a survey of all existing literature in a specific field. It serves two purposes. First is to exhaustively describe research done in a specific area. The second is to evaluate this body of literature to identify established finds, conflicting evidence and gaps in research. A literature review includes research articles, dissertations, conference papers, scholarly articles and other sources.

This may seem daunting to a beginner. However it is easy to write a literature review. All you need is patience and good analytical skills. All literature reviews have a basic structure. There are slight variations in this format, depending on the discipline and the purpose of the literature review.

The first step is to identify a topic on which you want to write the review of literature. Finding a suitable topic is the hardest part of a literature review. You must begin searching for a topic early. This would involve intensive reading. Choosing a person-relevant topic, which motivates and interests you, will make the entire process much more enjoyable.

Before finalizing a topic, you need to ensure that there is considerable research in that area. So several individuals should have conducted research and written about the topic. As a result you will have various perspectives to compare and analyze.

Once you are well versed with the broad area of ​​interest, narrow it down to a specific topic. The more specific your topic, the more comprehensive your review will be.

The second step is to begin collecting and reading the articles. While choosing a topic you would have done already matched some preliminary research. Now you would need to systematically build on this initial research. Libraries and online journal collections are good starting points. Interviews with subject matter experts, books, documentaries, and archival data can be used during this stage.

Remember reading academic articles can be challenging and you might be inclined to give up. Here are some tips to make your reading of the literature easier:

1. Begin with the easier articles and then proceed to the harder ones.

2. Read the abstract first. Then scan through the article and identify key themes and elements such as the research questions, the findings etc. Make a note of these elements.

3. Next do an in-depth reading of the literature you have collected. Read each article line by line to completely understand it. Look for hidden themes, contradictions and logical gaps in arguments. Try to link it to other literature in the area.

4. Reading requires time and patience. So plan accordingly and allocate maximum time for this phase.

After you have read through sufficient material, you would need to shortlist the articles to the ones most relevant to your topic. Try to look for connections between the articles, and loopholes in the existing research and consensus regarding the subject matter.

Keep an open mind, and look critically at all the information. Your literature review should not be a simple summary of a couple of articles and books. It should provide a unique perspective on the existing literature, and facilitate further debate. Once you have mapped your ideas, arguments and created a loose structure for the review, you will begin the actual writing process.

You would need at least 15 – 20 articles for a good literature review. However, a literature review can have up to 100 articles. Student literature reviews are typically 20 pages long or of 3000 words approximately.

Make sure that your literature review is well organized. A natural flow makes a literature review easier and more pleasant to read. Most literature reviews begin with the title page, the abstract followed by a brief introduction to the topic. The introduction should include the purpose and questions of the review.

The body usually contains a detailed description of each study, along with observations and comparisons of the studies. The finds are then put concisely in the conclusion, after which the implications of the literature review are stated. Implications are your personal addition to the topic based on your reading and analysis. It includes your impressions of what the studies show and the need for further research.

Some points while you write your review:

• Write only when you have read all your text and have understood it.
• Take breaks in between writing the review, so that you do not burn out.
• Always use simple and concise language. Illustrate your points with concrete examples from the text you have read.
• Summarize and paraphrase the articles, instead of using long quotes.
• Edit and review the article, to avoid grammatical and formatting errors.
• Finally never indulge in plagiarism. Use in text citations and references.

In text citations are used when you quote someone else's idea within your article. It includes the author's last name and the year of the study. References must include the author's name, the title of the book, the year of the publication, the publishing house and the location. There are detailed instructions for citations available at all major university websites such as Harvard etc. You could read through them for more clarity on how to write the references.

Now that you know the steps involved in writing a literature review, you will be well equipped to begin your review.

Source by Seema Misra