Author Archives: Phyllis Carpenter

Why You Have to have to Pick SMS Internet marketing In India

Presently, there are around 929.37 million cellular telephone subscribers in India. In accordance to a study carried out by Nielsen Informate Cellular Insights, there are 27 million Clever telephone buyers in Urban India. At present, SMS is a well known medium for delivering Worth Included Providers (VAS) in India. It is approximated that about 20% urban Indians have used a SMS VAS company. SMS is an efficient advertising and marketing instrument in India, displaying conversion costs increased than other typical mediums.

As cellular telephones are attaining recognition amid persons, little and substantial-scale businesses have started off to rely on cellular advertising to encourage their items and solutions. Different varieties of cellular advertising techniques these types of as Multimedia Message Company (MMS), Quick Message Service (SMS), Pay back For each Simply call mobile, Voice Internet marketing, Cell Banner Advertisements and Cellular programs are utilized in India for advertising objective.

However, SMS advertising is attaining recognition between marketers as it is speedy, reputable and successful mode of conversation. What’s more, Small Message Services (SMS) has grow to be a well-liked mode of conversation between folks. It is estimated that an normal Indian sends all-around 29 SMS per thirty day period. Considering the fact that it is more cost-effective than other usual marketing modes, SMS advertising is made use of generally by modest-scale providers to industry their solutions.

As SMS technology is booming in India, bulk SMS software program is rising in India to satisfy the exceptional marketing and advertising necessities of firms. Previously, Indian marketers had to count on SMS assistance providers to deliver multiple messages but now making use of bulk SMS computer software they are able to obtain complete handle around their marketing marketing campaign. As SMS program has customizing choices, end users are in a position to customize the shipping time of messages in accordance to their requires.

A further crucial explanation for its expanding level of popularity in India is that SMS advertising and marketing campaigns are straightforward to deal with. SMS software package has quick to use interface which lets even an inexperienced marketer to make use of it effectively. As it has more quickly turnaround time, providers are equipped to ascertain the development of their promoting campaign within a few months and are ready to improve their marketing campaign in time.

Nowadays, bulk SMS technique is normally practiced in metropolitan metropolitan areas like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Ahmedabad and states like Punjab and Gujarat. Beside, it is also getting recognition in other compact cities and towns. Currently, distinct styles of bulk SMS software package&#39s are remaining laid out in India for the enhancement of interaction in India. SMS advertising has obtained great progress in India and nonetheless has a good deal of untapped probable.

Resource by Moneek H Mehra

The Importance of the Thousand Pillar Temple

The Thousand Pillar Temple or Rudreshwara Swamy Temple is a historic Hindu temple positioned in the town of Hanamakonda, Telangana Condition, India. It is dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Surya.

According to one incredibly old book in Sanskrit at BORI (Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute), Poona: Mandiram Puratanam, the significance of 1000 pillar is that 333 pillows for three deities: Shiva, Vishnu and Surya and one particular pillar for the Brahma (the creator) who does not determine in this temple.

But this explanation or importance was rejected by Professor Sukhtankar who&#39s environment-renounced for his address on Mahabharat. Even Belvalkar did not settle for this theory. However, it&#39s nevertheless popular among a sure team of &#39scholars&#39 and devotees.

This temple has its have great importance and individuals who check out South and have a religious bent of head, by no means fall short to go and see this outstanding shrine.

A visitor&#39s impressions of thousand pillar temple:

According to ASI (Archaeological Survey of India), this temple is visited by devotees as very well as architects. The architectural significance of this temple is truly noteworthy. There are richly carved pillows, perforated screens, beautiful icons rock slash elephants and the monolithic dolerite Nandi as components of the temple. Maxwell Fry, who assisted French architect Lee Carbuzio in structuring Chandigarh, visited 1000 pillar temple in South in 1959.

It&#39s thought that the notion of ​​structural help and suspension balance was taken from right here. But there&#39s no official proof to aid this claim which very first appeared in the Quest in 1972.

The importance of the thousand pillar temple Warrangal :

The 1000 pillar is a strategy prevalent in the ancient temple architecture of India. Sahsram stambham vritika poornam (A person thousand billars finish the divine significance of a temple / shrine).

A pillar is a image of power. Thousand pillows consolidate that energy. In Vishnu Sahsranaam, just one gets to study that the heaven stands on sahsram stambham (on a person thousand pillars).

That heavenly metaphor may perhaps have been utilized here by the artisans of the temple, guided by males of good spiritual knowledge and prescience.

From Tantrik or occult standpoint of historic Hinduism, stambh is symbolic of &#39erect phallus&#39 (Stamghan: Erection in Sanskrit). The ancient India was not at all prudish like the present day India. Kama and Moksha (salvation) lived cheek-by-jowl without any prudery or emotion of humiliation. Khajuraho&#39s temples with their erotic carvings underscore this actuality so eloquently. No question, if this may perhaps have been an underlying cause behind the building of this temple.

Resource by Juhi Mateen

Political Influence Whilst Starting off A Small business In India

As in any element of the globe, political influence is hugely critical to start off a business in India. Primarily if you are planning to start out a multi billion enterprise, some kind of political patronage is an complete necessity. Not only for safeguarding the curiosity of the company but even to start off the procedure of acquiring the needed sanctions, just one calls for hold in the high echelons of politics and administrative circles.

Indian culture is hugely plural. It is the largest democracy in the planet with multi occasion political system. In population, India is 2nd to China, with approximately 1200 million people today. This is the most essential buyer current market in the planet. It is a quick establishing world. India is the 3rd greatest financial state in the globe and second rapid increasing financial system in Asia. It has the great prospective of enhancement with large mental human pressure. With all these advantages and the big sector opportunity, world tremendous business people are looking for organization establishments in India. With the overcrowded populace and the millions of really hard doing work and capable personals, India delivers a incredibly affordable work power to the world. Several have realized the business likely in India, began discovering the special possibilities of investments.

For the duration of the last few of a long time, India has opened its market place to earth. It has definitely develop into an open up worldwide current market. Banking sector, Insurance coverage sector and all fields of industrial and enterprise are now open up for multi nationwide financial investment. Of study course there are quite a few obstructions to cross. And largely all troubles can triumph over and create company if you have the political patronage.

India has a political political system. With numerous political parties, national amount and point out level, it is incredibly difficult to get a consensus among the all events for starting off any organization. Also these political events have patronage of a lot of factors, caste, creed and ideologies. There are political get-togethers with remaining centric communist ideologies they are completely against direct foreign investments. But other events, who are major ruling coalition associates, have suitable centric ideologies and open up for foreign investments. In most of the states, primarily neighborhood political functions are ruling. Political events demand money patronage from large company establishments.

Numerous constituent states have recognized the will need for international investments in their condition for a growth oriented economic scenario. Listed here is the local climate has modified a large amount in India. So numerous privileges are made available to business people to commence business. With all these facilities, nonetheless political patronage is a should to start a business enterprise in India. Even soon after setting up the small business, for a right working of the business, political aid is essential. It is generally to type out concerns related to nearby taxes, labor difficulties and several these kinds of problems affecting the normal doing the job of the corporations.

Resource by Robert Grazian

Placement Ratio or Talent Advancement? What Indian Engineering Demands To Concentration Upon

Generally referred as a &#39Land of Engineers&#39, thousands of engineering colleges in India deliver an typical of 6 lakh engineering industry experts for every calendar year. We are the greatest provider of engineering workforce close to the world, specifically in the UAE, US and United kingdom. Despite staying the variety a person producer of the engineering perform on the full globe, India has unsuccessful inadequately in education the very same activity force.

Concentrating on the boosting ability deficiency among the engineering activity pressure in the region, a the latest IET Feedback Study highlighted the need of skill schooling in engineering faculties. As for each the report, occupation placements have turn into additional significant for colleges, than talent enhancements for most of the engineering institutions in the region. All around 85% of the business and 55% of the faculties opinioned that “schools concentrate more on task placement of the students in its place of making their capabilities and investigation abilities!”

Engineering is amongst handful of important task creators in the state and depriving skill is a issue of concern for both govt and market. All-around 50% of the engineering graduates in the nation are unemployed. Deficiency of industry teaching make them unfit for the recent industry wants and since does not aid India improve its employability ratio in the identical.

The study was a put together hard work of “Engineering Admissions & Perceptions – India, Institution of Engineering & Technologies (IET) and Opinions Consulting” which surveyed close to 187 engineering faculties throughout India, 200 parents of enrolled students and 100 leaders from the marketplace.

In this article are the big highlights of the report:

  • Main engineering these types of as civil, electrical, mechanical, and many others. and market engineering such as biotech, textile, leather-based and so forth. have received their acceptance.
  • The total proportion of female enrollment has greater. It went more than 31%, specially in personal computer-oriented streams.
  • IT / ITES, Manufacturing and Electrical / Digital remained the leading a few guests of the engineering campuses all around India. Nonetheless, in 2015 close to 20% Analytics, e-Commerce & Hello-Engineering firms also participated in the recruitments.
  • As for every the report, utmost scholar opted to engineer simply because of better job point of view relatively than individual interest and all over 40% ended up functioning in the profits / promoting / HR area.
  • Parental tension is just one of the significant elements of opting engineering in India.
  • 80% educational, 74% sector gurus and 85% mothers and fathers think that global accreditation of engineering faculties and programs is needed to entice the most effective faculty and high quality instruction in this specific area.

Comparison in the report was carried out involving the fiscal yr of 2013 and 2014.

What Must be Completed?

IET, the most significant engineering institution of the environment with around 1.6 Lakh members from across 127 international locations performing for the betterment and security of engineering requirements on the globe. Based mostly on the survey final results, the committee suggested down below-mentioned to increase the high quality of engineering in India:

  • Stress must be provided on strengthening and developing exploration talents of the students.
  • More concentrate should be presented upon the accreditation process of engineering colleges.
  • Schools ought to flip their concentration on the talent improvement instead than the position placement.
  • Females participation ought to be encouraged.
  • Anxiety should really be presented on field (functional instruction) of the students by enhancing sector-academia collaboration.

Source by Ritu Sharma L

Survey Shows Rising Trend In Pest Control Services In India

However, you can still perform this on very by with a couple homemade possibilities. An individual aren’t addressing unseen damage, which grows quickly. Weeds are a Pest to every gardener.

Before buying any involving property its must for your pre purchase inspection. Suppose, you are interested in a house or want to shift another apartment then you can certainly must try work for you to sign some type of paper. It will be important as it is the matter of spending a lot of money. People buy an at home by spending huge degrees of money to locate a the duty of the buyers to be sure all points related for the home. In this particular matter which can be done the inspection on your personal personal. But, it would be great if can perform take assistance from the professional inspector to be able to inspect your house thoroughly. Generally people check out an organization that have a group of professional building and pest inspectors. You must go to a well known organization results the best service to be able to.

The most frequently found flea found is the “Ctenocephalides” cat flea. Historical past of the is confusing as these fleas are happy to survive your dog and puppy. There are more than 3,000 various species of fleas globe United States, but dispersed further flea will still be the the majority of typical.

Repair any leaky pipes and other plumbing issues around residence. For the sake of pest prevention, do not allow any water to accumulate or sit for extended intervals in household. This can usher in fungus problems too. Empty the tray under your refrigerator frequently well the trays under any house plants in order to might ‘ve got. The more you can make for in approach of pest prevention the less anyone could have to do in the way of Pest Control!


Get containers such as jars to maintain your food in consumers that the relationship is sealed up tight such that mice can’t munch on it in the guts of the night time. This enable you buy them out of cabinets your own store super food.

While are generally discussing trash cans, make sure that you empty yours very, very regularly. Sitting trash decomposes and emits more enticing odors to your fly. It will ample time to reproduce and begin another generation. So empty cans regularly, and wash them out weekly with an above average bleach baths. Using locking lids can also limit access on the trash as a breeding and feeding site for the fly.

Another good-for-nothing common Pest on Earth is the Cimex hemipterus. These are cousins for this common bed bug mostly found in warmer periods. They are mostly found citrus and infest bats and poultry. Reduce them inside the home, kind contact professional agencies for help.

Mint is often a very tasty herb which a tendency to go wild in a garden if not kept down. Instead of planting mint within your garden, ensure that it stays in significant container or pot cease it from spreading. You’ve the choice of planting the container although plant support the roots from your garden minimum.

When a person consistent and employ specific comments you may find amazing results. If you take the time build those business relationships you understand great referral resources and possible joint venture partners for future works of art.

Indian Short Tale in English – A Survey

Murli Das Melwani: Themes in the Indian Limited Tale in English: An Historic and A Essential Study. Bareilly: Prakash E-book Depot, 2009. Webpages 207. Rate: Rs. 175 / -, ISBN-978-81-7977-323-9.

As Murli Das Melwani states in the Preface, the goal of the ebook is to attract attention to the genre of Indian Quick Stories in English by critically surveying historic advancement from 1835 to the present. He delineates the attribute thematic features of many authors in 7 sections divided into many sub-sections. Even so, as the author says in the Preface, “The scope of this ebook is confined to stories collected and posted in the e-book sort.” Neither the reserve contains unclear released limited stories, retold stories, fairytales and extensive shorter stories, nor does it contain translated shorter tales.

In the &#39Introduction&#39, Melwani traces the enhancement of limited tale from Kathasaritsagar to Raja Rao devoid of excluding its advancement as a form in the West. He will take into account early practitioners this sort of as ETW Hoffman, NV Gogol, Merimee, Balzac, Gautier, Edgar Allan Poe, Ambrose Bierce, Stephen Crane, O&#39Henry, and HG Wells etc in the West and Sudhin Ghosh, RK Narayan, Raja Rao and others in India.

The 1st area entitled &#39The Beginnings: 1835-1935&#39 involves authors this kind of as Pallab Sengupta, Soshee Chunder Dutt, Cornelia Sorabjee, SB Banerjea, Dhan Gopal Mukerji, AS Panchpakesa Ayyar, CT Ramabhai etcetera. These early Indian writers in English paved the way for the excellent trio of Indian English Fiction, hardly ever Mulk Raj Anand, RKNarayan, and Raja Rao who are all talked about independently in Segment II of the e-book. In &#39The To start with Flowering: 1935-1945&#39 Melwani consists of this sort of other authors as Manjeri S. Isvaran, Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, Ela Sen, and Louis Gracious who enriched the nationalist movement of the time period with their writing.

Section III bargains with a number of celebrated authors of the 1950s these types of as Attia Hossain, Khushwant Singh, GD Khosla, and other individuals who mirrored on human figures vis-à-vis economic improvement in the early phase of Submit-Independence India.

Part IV, &#39The Second Flowering: 1960-1970&#39 discounts with some very well recognized writers these types of as RP Jhabvala, Bunny Reuben, Ruskin Bond, Bhabani Bhattacharya who are a lot less moral but a lot more satirical and paradoxical in their remedy of themes.

Portion V is aptly titled as &#39The Blossoming&#39 for the reason that it covers the plethora of quick tale writers these kinds of as Padma Hejmadi, Keki N. Daruwalla, Anita Desai, Hamdi Bey, Kamala Das, Arun Joshi, Manohar Malgaonkar, and others who flourished in the course of the 1970s and 1980s.

They offer with a range of themes such as modifying approaches of smaller city Indian everyday living, human psyche, parables, politics, the army etc.

The pursuing chapter, Part VI &#39An Prolonged Spring&#39 usually takes into account modern writers this kind of as Vikram Chandra, Amit Chaudhuri, Githa Hariharan, Anita Nair, Uma Parameswaran, Meher Pestonji, and some others who ponder on themes these as secret, fantasy, migration, homosexuality, tradition as opposed to modernity and so on.

The ultimate area &#39The Prospect&#39 presents details about the history of publishing houses. It also mentions the neglected gals publishers these types of as Kali, Katha, Stree, Tara, Tulika, Yoda, Karadi, Zubaan, Girls Endless, and Biblio. It also talks about the foreseeable future of Indian Limited Tale in English. The part demonstrates on absence of literary prizes in India and mentions favourable developments these as Vodaphone Crossword E-book Award, Indiaplaza Golden Ebook Awards, Readerr&#39s Alternative award and many others for promoting small story writing and examining.

A single of the important options of the ebook is that it includes information about the less recognized writers along with perfectly identified writers. Important surveys frequently address only the effectively acknowledged names.

The Bibliography can be of fantastic support to researchers mainly because it delivers specific facts about anthologies of small tales from the time as early as 1908.

On the adverse side, however, the e-book excludes mention of some very well known modern day writers these kinds of as Jhumpa Lahiri, Arundhati Roy, Farrukh Dhondy, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Rohinton Mistry etc. The reserve would have been strengthened with their discussion even if the motive of the author may have been to acquaint the visitors to lesser identified names which most publications tend to disregard. Nevertheless, it is a major publication, practical to each researcher and students of Indian English Producing.

(jointly with Sudeshna Pandey, M.Phil Researcher)

Resource by Ram Krishna Singh

Taking care of a Pre-Transfer Study – Significant Ideas & Suggestions

The pre-shift study is crucial in order to get exact shifting estimates from professional packers and movers in India. Most removing firms in India present free pre-go survey. Folks typically ignore on pre-move study. But it is vital and incredibly essential to get specific estimate. As soon as, you have resolved to make your relocation with the help of skilled shifting firm you would like to get an estimate from for your shift. Before getting an estimate from any a person of removal firms in your place you ought to invite the enterprise consultant for a pre-transfer survey. Make confident that skilled elimination companies have the subsequent information and facts and procedures. This will aid you locate out the experience level of a expert removal corporation.

Before the study it is considerable that the survey consultant calls and verifies for the following: –

1. Time and Day of Relocation
2. Tackle of Old House and New Household
3. Length involving Aged Dwelling and New Household
4. Excess weight of Goods to be Transported
5. Specific Requirements like Pets Relocating, Crops Going, Warehousing, Insurance Facility, etcetera

For a specific estimate to be established to meet up with you requirements and budgets, it is crucial that all issues are taken into correct issue by the survey advisor of professional transferring business. You should really validate the shifting organization about length concerning your outdated property and new home. You ought to advise your mover about amount that you would like you shift. Also you should tell about your special needs like pet moving, plant relocating, warehousing requires, items insurance policy require, and so on. For lengthy distance move it is significant to make pre-move survey. But for tiny length transfer, it can be typically finished over the cellphone get in touch with. In this way you will be absolutely get a proper & ideal estimate which will support you prepare you spending budget and make planning for your relocation. The principal objective of pre-transfer study is to deliver you correct estimate and in-depth & published information and facts about your shift masking just about every and just about every facet involved in your move.

On pre-go study you can also get specific data about your mover which services you are going to hire. The business agent will inform you about its organization business registration, registration, encounter, range of staffs, prior clients & shoppers. In fact, pre-transfer study is also the correct time to study your mover or discover trustworthiness of the move which providers you will retain the services of to make your relocation.

I hope this short article will assist you prepare your pre-shift survey to get specific estimate from the suitable and really expert removing corporation in your spot.

Source by Santosh Ets

ShoreLine Change Monitoring in Coastal India, Using Remote Sensing and GIS Tools


Shoreline or coastline, the boundary between land and sea keeps changing its shape and position continuously due to dynamic environmental conditions. The change in shoreline is mainly associated with waves, tides, winds, periodic storms, sealevel change, the geomorphic processes of erosion and accretion and human activities. Shoreline also depicts the recent formations and destruction that have happened along the shore. Waves change the coastline morphology and forms the distinctive coastal landforms. The loose granular sediments continuously respond to the ever-changing waves and currents. The beach profile is important, in that it can be viewed as an effective natural mechanism, which causes waves to break and dissipate their energy. When breakwaters are constructed, they upset the natural equilibrium between the sources of beach sediment and the littoral drift pattern. In response, shoreline changes its configuration in attempt to reach a new equilibrium (Ramesh and Ramachandran 2001). Monitoring changes in shoreline helps to identify the nature and processes that caused these changes in any specific area, to assess the human impact and to plan management strategies. Remote sensing data could have been used effectively to monitor the changes along the coastal zone including shoreline with reasonable accuracy. Remote sensing data helps and / or replaces the conventional survey by its repetitive and less cost-effectiveness. Here, in order to study the coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal area, the shoreline change, wave action, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology were analyzed using Remote Sensing and GIS tools.

Study area

Tuticorin coast has a major port and it is a rapidly developing area. The study area falls in the latitudinal and longitudinal extensions of 8 ° 40 '- 8 ° 55' N and 78 ° 0 '- 78 ° 15' E on the Tamil Nadu, East Coast of India (fig 1). Major Industries such as Southern Petrochemical Industrial Corporation, Thermal Power Plant, Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals and Heavy Water Plant are also present in this area. Due to the accelerated development activities the coastal area experience significant changes.

Tuticorin was a center of maritime trade and pearl fishery for more than 2000 years. To cope with increasing trade through Tuticorin, the government of India sanctioned the construction of an all weather port at Tuticorin. On 11-7-1974, the newly constructed Tuticorin port was declared as the tenth major port. On 1-4-1979, the erstwhile Tuticorin minor port and the newly constructed Tuticorin major port were introduced and the Tuticorin Port Trust was established under the major port trusts act, 1963.



Geocoded IRS LISS III May 2002 imagery was used to prepare coastal geomorphology map adopting visual interpretation technique. In the present study, the classification system developed by the Space Application Center, Ahmedabad for the nation wide coastal geomorphic mapping was adopted for the study (SAC 1991).

Shoreline change

Survey of India toposheets No. L1 & L5 of (1969) (lat: 8 ° 40 '- 8 ° 55', long: 78 ° 0 '- 78 ° 15'; Scale 1: 50,000) were used as a base map. They was digitized, edited, geometrically projected and transformed through ARC INFO to maintain real world coordinates. To eliminate the effect of tidal influence in shoreline change study, low tide satellite data were used. SOI toposheets 1969, Landsat 5 TM May 1993, IRS P2 LISS II May 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2002 satellite data were used to assess the changes in shoreline for 33 years period from 1969 to 2002. Raster data procured through satellites were geometrically corrected using the Survey of India toposheet as a base. More than 25 ground control points were taken and the Root Mean Square (RMS) error for geometric correction is 0.002. Band 1 of IRS P2 LISS II 1996, band 5 of LANDSAT 5 TM 1993 and band 3 of IRS 1C LISS III 2002 were used. These different bands were used based on their contrast between land and ocean. In these bands the information content is more in land as compared to water. The Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 data were vectorised by adopting onscreen digitization technique with single pixel zoom level using ERDAS imagination 8.4 software. The vector layers of the shoreline got through on screen digitization in ERDAS imagination and vectorisation through ArcInfo were imported as Arc coverage for the above four data sets. Each of the data sets had a polygon ID 1 for Land area and 2 for Ocean. The shoreline obtained from Survey of India toposheet of 1969 and the shoreline demarcated through the satellite data of Landsat 5 TM 1993, IRS P2 1996, and IRS 1C 2002 were kept in different coverage in the same projection and map coordinates. These four coverages were overlaid through Arc info GIS. Shoreline change map of 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 were generated. The resolution differs for different satellite data products. For LANDSAT 5 TM, IRS P2 and IRS 1C resolutions were 30m, 73.5m and 23.5m respectively. Although there is resolution difference, edge detection technique gives a clear demarcation of land and water boundary. The shoreline features were brought to Arcview GIS for further querying and analysis.

Wave pattern recognition

Remote Sensing is becoming a major tool in identifying the coastal processes spatially. Infrared band gives the maximum information on ocean parameters, so band 3 of IRS P2 1996, band 2 of IRS 1C of 2001 and band 2 of IRS 1C 2002 were used for the identification of wave patterns. Noise reduction technique is applied to the IRS P2 May 1996, IRS 1C May 2001 and IRS 1C May 2002 data for enhancing the image. Convolution filtering technique with 3 * 3 kernel edge detect is applied to IRS P2 May 1996, IRS 1C May 2001 and IRS 1C May 2002 for enhancing the wave characteristics for interpretation.

Coastal Bathymetry

For coastal bathymetry studies Naval Hydrographic Organization (NHO) chart 1999 is interpolated, interpreted and analyzed using Arcinfo and Arcview GIS. The NHO chart number is 2075, scale is 1: 50000 and the density of spot soundings is 4 per This chart was surveyed in 1975-1976, in transverse mercator projection, updated in 1999 and the tidal levels referred to datum of soundings is Lat 8 ° 48 'and Long 78 ° 10' and the heights in meters above datum is MHWS 1.0, MHWN 0.7, MLWN 05, MLWS 03 and MSL 0.6 respectively. TIN interpolation technique is adopted for spatial interpolation and DEM generation. Zero is defined as datum or the reference to which the depth is measured. Representation of the seabed in this model is in the form of elevation matrix formed by overlaying a square grid mesh over the surface and recording the elevation value for each grid cell. The cell values ​​are organized in matrix form where the row and column numbers implying the xy co-ordinate of the cell respectively. The elevation matrix is ​​produced by interpolation from irregularly spaced bathymetric data points over a contour map. The three dimensional view and the slope of bathymetry is derived by applying TIN spatial analysis model using Arc View 3.2a software.

Results and Discussion

Coastal Geomorphology

Sandy beach

Sandy beaches are the product of waves interacting with a sandy beach at the shoreline. The sandy beaches are extensively developed along the entire coast of study area except at some places. Tuticorin is covered by long and intensive sandy beach. It trends in north-south direction. Well developed sandy beach is identified below south harbor breakwater. This beach is dominated by an admixture of quartz, feldspars and mica minerals. The beach is found as thick white patch at south of south harbor breakwater in satellite imagery (fig.2).


A spit is a small point of low tongue or narrow bank, commonly consisting of sand or gravel deposited by a long-shore drifting and having one end attached to the mainland and other terminating in the open sea. It is identified in white patch in satellite imagery (fig.2). Two spit formations have been observed in south of the urban coast. Normally the formation of spit has been attributed to the movement and deposition of materials by longshore current (Thornbury 1969). Spit indicates seaward progressation (Loveson and Rajamanickam 1987). The spit near Tuticorin is 0.75 to 2 km long and tongue shaped. Tuticorin spit has been rejected by long shore currents during monsoon and the sediments discharged by Tamiraparani River.

Beach ridges

Beach ridges are moderately undulating terrain features of marine depositional type, formed during pliestocene to recent age, in the plains of the study area. They are low, essentially continuous beach or beach dune materials (sand, gravel and shingle) heaped up by the action of wave and currents on the backshore of a beach beyond the present limit of storm waves or the reach of ordinary tides, and occurring as a single or as one of a series of approximately parallel deposits (Chockalingam 1993). The beach ridges have been recognized as representing successful still-stand position of sea of ​​an advancing shoreline from satellite imagery. Beach ridges of Tuticorin are highly reworked.


Mudflat is a flat area containing a fluid to plastic mixture of finely derived particles of solid material mainly silt and clay water. They are always associated with silted environments like lagoons, estuaries and other embankments. Mudflats are formed by the deposition of fine inorganic material and organic debris in particulate form. Mud flats are wide expense of deposit of clay, silt, ooze, etc (Davies 1972). Mudflats are well developed at the river mouth of Koramballam Oodai, an estuarine environment. They appear as dark black tone in satellite imagery.

Dune complex

Dune complex is an important geomorphic unit consisting of active and loose sediment heaps with negligible amount of vegetation. In this zone, the aeolian activity is reportedly high resulting in migration without a major change in their shapes. It indicates the age of late Pliestocene to Recent (Loveson 1993). Tuticorin is located in dune complex.
Teri dune complex

Teri dune complex is an undulating terrain having loose heaps of red color sand and silt dust of aeolian origin. They represent Pliestocene to Recent age of formation (Loveson 1993; Loveson et al., 1990). They appeared as round to oval shaped mounts with dense vegetation. It is assumed that the fierce and continuous winds of south west monsoon by sweeping up vast clouds of dust from the dry surface of the red loam, exposed at the base of the hills must have bought and deposited their load of sediments near the coast over the plain to form Teri dune complex (Ahmad 1972). All dune complexes in this area are trending in the northeast to southeast direction. In recent years, these Teri dune complexes are being utilized for cultivation also. It is identified in greenish yellow color in satellite imagery.

Shoreline change

Shoreline is one of the important dynamic coastal features where the land, air and sea meet. In any open coast, when manmade structures such as harbor or breakwaters interfere with the littoral currents shoreline changes drastically. Chauhan and Nayak (1995) have studied the shoreline changes using the satellite data covering low tide period. During the low tide condition, maximum land is exposed and even low water line / land water boundary and high water line are distinctly visible. This enables better mapping of the shoreline. The demarcation and the areal extent of the sites of erosion and appreciation are queried and estimated through Arc View GIS package (fig. 3). The total areas of erosion during the periods 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in table 1. It was observed that during 1969 to 1993 the erosion along the coastline of Tuticorin area was 9 ha. During the period of 1993 to 1996 it was 14 ha and in the period 1996 to 2002 it was 18 ha. Most of the erosion was observed in sand spit, Hare Island and at urban coast (fig. 3). The total areas of accretion during the periods 1969 to 1993, 1993 to 1996 and 1996 to 2002 are given in table 2. The accretion during the different periods were 138 ha (1969 to 1993)

18 ha (1993 to 1996) and 23 ha (1996 to 2002) (fig. 3). Since accretion was more than the eruption, the entire shoreline could have been considered as the shore of progressation. Rajamanickam (1991) observed the features of emergence and submergence respectively along the southern parts of Tamilnadu. He also suggested upwarping along Tuticorin area.

For analyzing the shoreline change in the study area, specific sites such as south harbor breakwater, Hare Island, sand spit and urban coast were studied for erosion and accretion. Urban coast is the coastline of the urban area. It is demarcated and shown in the figure 3. The areal extent of erosion and accretion observed in the abovesaid areas are presented in Table 3 and 4. Both erosion and accretion factors were avoided in estuarine environment since demarcation of shoreline is not accurately possible in estuarine environment because this area is highly dynamic.

In sand spit (fig. 4 & 5), during 1969 to 1993 erosion was 4 ha and the accretion was 7 ha, during 1993 to 1996 eration was 4 ha and accretion was 3 ha and during 1996 to 2002 erosion was 5 ha. and accretion was 2 ha (Table 3 & 4). In sand spit the erosion is not noticed at wave exposed side and accretion is noticed at leeward side of the spit. This may be due to the transport of eroded sediments from the wave exposed side to the leeward side of the spit.

Tombalo structure formation is noted in between Tuticorin mainland and Hare Island
(fig. 2). This is due to longshore sedimentation from south to north resulting in the Hare Island and the mainland to link. It took geological years to link the mainland and Hare Island. In Hare Island (Fig. 4 & 5), during the period of 1969 to 1993 erosion was 4 ha, during 1993 to 1996 erosion was 6 ha and during 1996 to 2002 erosion was 6 ha (Table 3). There is no accreditation activity observed in Hare Island.

In South harbor breakwater (fig. 4 & 5), during the period of 1969 to 1993 accretion was 81 ha, during 1993 to 1996 accretion was 8 ha and during 1996 to 2002 accretion was 18 ha. There is no erosion observed (Table 4). The accretion here takes place in curvilinear manner. Accretion in curvilinear manner along the shoreline results in a formation of beach and similar paleo beach ridges were not noted along the beach. The curvilinear formation of this paleo beach ridges is termed geomorphologically as strandlines.

At urban coast (Fig. 4 & 5), erosion was 1 ha and accretion was 15 ha during 1969 to 1993, erosion was 3 ha and accretion was 6 ha from 1993 to 1996, and the erosion was 3 ha and accretion was 3 ha for the period 1996 to 2002. The observation shows that the eration is lower and accretion is higher in this site (Table 3 & 4). It is also observed that there is not much shoreline change in the urban environment. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1987 and 1988a) and Loveson et al (1990) have also reported the changes in shoreline of south Indian coast based on deposition of landforms like beach ridges, occurrence of backwater zone etc., through remote sensing based geomorphological interpretation. Loveson and Rajamanickam (1988b) have also pointed out the possible fall of sea level in Tuticorin coast due to neotectonic emerging of the seafloor. The prevailing winds noticed at Tuticorin area were maximum at North West, North East and North directions respectively. Prevailing winds were also noted at South West, South and South East directions but the majority of the months experience NW, NE and N winds only. The wind speed ranges from 9-16 km / hr.

Table 1: Erosion observed at Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Erosion

1969-1993 9 ha.

1993-1996 14 ha.

1996-2002 18 ha.

Table 2: Accuracy observed at Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Accretion

1969-1993 138 ha.

1993-1996 18 ha.

1996-2002 24 ha.

Table 3: Erosion observed at specific sites in Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Spit Hare Island Urban Coast

1969-1993 4 ha. 4 ha. 1 ha.

1993-1996 4 ha. 6 ha. 3 ha.

1996-2002 5 ha. 6 ha. 3 ha.

1969-2002 13 ha. 16 ha. 7 ha.

Table 4: Accuracy observed at specific sites in Tuticorin coast during 1969, 1993, 1996 and 2002

Year Spit Below South harbor breakwater Urban Coast

1969-1993 7 ha. 81 ha. 15 ha.

1993-1996 3 ha. 8 ha. 6 ha.

1996-2002 2 ha. 18 ha. 3 ha.

1969-2002 12 ha. 107 ha. 24 ha.

Wave pattern

Depending on the wave pattern, which was present in imagery, various features such as reflected waves, diffracted waves and shadow zone were identified. These features play a major role in shaping the shoreline, which also depends on the geographical features that exist along the coast.

Wave refraction

In the study area wave refraction is observed in the tip of the northern harbor breakwater. Wave propagation and its refraction pattern is clearly identified in IRS P2 May 1996 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III May 2002 satellite imageries (fig. 6, 7 & 8). The linear progressive wave from the offshore area is almost progressing with an angle of 115 ° with respect to the mainland. The angularity of the wave propagation is measured through Arc View GIS 3.2 software. They propagate in SW to NE, towards mainland. The north breakwater is exactly perpendicular (90 °) to the direction of the wave (fig. 6, 7 & 8). When the wave touches the north breakwater the wave breaks running along the breakwater. The refracted wave passes along with harbor breakwater, almost two kilometers in distance and dissipates its energy (fig. 6, 7 & 8). In the south break water a shoal is present and this shoal hinders the refracted waves and dissipates its energy. This refracted wave does not cause any coastal geomorphic change to the headland because it does not touch it.

Wave diffraction

Diffraction of water waves is a process by which energy flow laterally along wave crest. Most obvious example is when waves are intercepted by an impervious structure such as breakwater. Presence of an obstruction scatters wave disturbance and give rise to fanning of wave trains on the lee or shadow of the obstruction. Diffraction is a common phenomenon around islands and can create substantial disturbance to the coastal region which adds further to the dynamic nature of the coast. IRS P2 May 1996, IRS LISS III 2001 and IRS LISS III 2002 data gives a clear representation of diffracted waves in the study area. Diffraction of wave is observed in the Vann Island and as well as the Hare Island. Since these islands were the major source of obstruction for the ocean waves, they give rise to fanning of wave trains (fig. 6, 7 & 8). Wave diffracts around with face of Hare Island and dissipates energy. Change in shoreline is clearly shown in fig. 3. The erosion that has been identified in sand spit and Hare Island are only due to wave diffraction. This is interpreted through IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C 2001 and IRS 1C 2002 coastal processes study and 1969 to 2002 shoreline change study. Erosion / accretion problem in the study area is not due to harbor location and its activity. Accretion observed at the leeward side of sand spit is due to this diffraction (Fig. 5). The deposition of sediments is also due to the convergence of the diffracted wave in the windward side of the sand spit.

Shadow zone

When two waves converge with one another, the energy at the place of convergence becomes negligible and the waves become calm. The point at which the two waves get converged is known as point of convergence and the area at which this phenomena occurs is known as the shadow zone. Shadow zone is very well identified from IRS P2 1996, IRS 1C LISS III 2001 and IRS 1C LISS III 2002 imageries. In the study area the shadow zone is observed in between Hare island and Vann island and also below the south harbor breakwater. When the diffracted wave from both the Hare Island and Vann Island converges, shadow zone is formed. The point of convergence and the shadow zone is clearly shown in the figure 6. The same phenomenon was observed below the southern breakwater. Here when the linear progressive wave Touches the south of harbor breakwater the wave breaks. Since the hinterland is curvilinear the waves from the south breakwater's country converges with the linear progressive waves and forms a shadow zone (fig. 6, 7 & 8). There is not much problem because of this shadow zone formation in the study area.


Monitoring of coastal bathymetry is vital for designing of ports and coastal structures. It is also important for the exploration and exploitation of non-living and living resources, to understand the dynamics of ocean processes in the continental shelves, for ship mooring and assessment of marine living habitats. In a GIS, the modeling of the Z-axis has become an important element. When the 3-D model is specifically applied to represent terrain, then this digital representation of the elevation is termed as a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The 3D Tuticorin Bathymetry Elevation Model derived from Naval Hydrographic Chart is shown in figure 9. The slope analysis of Tuticorin port and its environment inferred from the 3-dimensional bathymetry model reveals that the slope is significantly declining in the direction of NW to SE. Gentle slope (1 – 4 °) is observed adjacent to the urban coast as well as above and below the harbor area (fig. 9). Attenuation of waves is more when it reaches the nearshore area and where the depth is minimum and the different wave patterns observed because of this attenuation is clearly seen using satellite remote sensing (fig. 8).

Waves observed from the satellite imagery and shoreline change were integrated and the effect of wave over the erosion / accretion site gives the reason for the site to be eroding or accreting. Moreover bathymetry also supports this. The analysis of wave action from 1996 – 2002 provides the information that the wave action is similar from the geologic past. Moreover the study area has also specific pattern of accretion as observed through strandlines present in south of Tuticorin harbor. So this wave data gives a clear idea about the shoreline change in the present study. From the vicinity of the harbor, in the direction of NW to SE, steep slopes were observed further offshore (fig. 9). The net sediment transport is from south to north. Delta sedimentation is also observed near Koramballam Odai and this river mouth is sheltered with depth value less than 2m. This is very well identified through satellite imagery. Sediment transport and the slope variants inferred from the urban coastal and harbor environment clearly show that the opportunities are less for sediments to enter into harbor breakwater (fig. 9). Here is not much dredging activity is required in Tuticorin harbor area.


The coastal processes in Tuticorin coastal area, the shoreline change, wave action, bathymetry and coastal geomorphology were analyzed using Remote Sensing and GIS tools. The erosion and accretion observed at Tuticorin using temporal satellite imageries show that the shoreline dynamics is natural and this is not due to human interference. Coastal processes play a major role in shaping the coastal configuration of this area. The integrative approach using Remote Sensing and GIS tools clearly illustrates both the cause and reasons for the shoreline change. The results of this study will be more useful for shoreline management.

Source by K Selvavinayagam

What Can make Bhangarh Fort the Most Haunted Put in India

India is a mystical country indeed, with its numerous forts, forests, and historic websites. Some sites are thought to be haunted by ghosts or spirits. Bhangarh Fort ranks initial in the record of most haunted area in India and attracts a great deal of tourists each individual calendar year. As Bhangarh Fort is recognised for its abundant heritage and paranormal incidents, it is one particular of the most well-known tourist locations in India for all those who want to feel the paranormal activities.

The Bhangarh Fort is a 17th-century fort in Rajasthan state. It was constructed by Gentleman Singh (Very first) for his young son Madho Singh (To start with). Man Singh was a single of the navratnas of Akbar’s court docket. It was named Bhangarh by Madho Singh just after his grandfather Bhan Singh. It is a single of the forts which are very well preserved.

The Bhangarh Fort found on the border of the Sariska Reserve in the Aravali array of hills in Alwar district of Rajasthan. The closest village is Gola ka Baas. The fort is situated at the foot of the hills on sloping terrain. The fort is found 235 kilometers from Delhi. The very last 2 kilometers of the path to the entrance gate of the fort is an unpaved street.

Due to a couple of tragic incidents and the common belief that the fort is haunted, trespassing near Bhangarh is legally prohibited concerning sunset and sunrise. According to locals, spirits enter the area soon after sunset and so no person should really enter the borders of Bhangarh during this time. As for each a discover board put up by the Archaeological Survey of India(ASI) at the entrance of the fort “no a single is authorized to enter the fort premises before dawn and right after sunset”.


1. A sadhu named Baba Balau Nath lived in just the fort spot. He gave these kinds of an order that any homes designed in the limits of the fort should really not be taller than his residence, and if the shadow of any such home fell on his house, it would final result in the destruction of the fort city. When a descendant prince lifted the palace to a top that forged a shadow around Sadhu’s abode, it is claimed that he cursed the full town. Subsequently, the entire metropolis and fort ended up destructed because of to sage’s curse. Locals feel that the fort is however cursed.

2. There was a wizard named N.K. Sinhai who was an qualified in black magic. He fell in like with princess Ratnavati of Bhangarh, who was quite wonderful. While she was 18 decades outdated, a single day she went purchasing with her buddies. The wizard noticed princess acquiring Ittar (scent) and replaced the scent with a adore potion to entice the princess. He supplied the potion to princess so that she starts liking him. Nonetheless, the princess understood the fraud of wizard and when he supplied her the bowl of potion, she threw it onto a major stone close by. As a end result, the stone began rolling down to the wizard and crushed him. Ahead of he died, he built a curse that Bhangarh would be destroyed before long and no 1 would be able to reside inside of its precincts. Subsequently, Bhangarh Fort was invaded by the Mughals from the north and the town was surrounded and sacked. All the people (approx. 10000) in the fort, like the princess, ended up killed. Now persons feel that the fort is haunted because of to the curse of the wizard and ghost of the wizard and princess however roam in the fort.


Soon after various incidents experienced been claimed from the city of the fort, the governing administration of India stopped the entry of tourists to the fort soon after sunset. Area consider that everyone who goes to the fort in the evening under no circumstances arrive back. 1 these kinds of incident which is very well-liked that after a group of travellers bribed the gatekeeper of the fort to allow them in the fort in the night time. The gatekeeper allowed them but also gave them a rigorous warning that they should not go inside of the fort at that time. The team of tourists dismissed the warning and went inside of the fort. As they could not come across nearly anything at initial, they began joking and laughing. Everything was likely effectively right up until they recognized a boy sitting down by yourself in a room. The door experienced no doors and windows in the door were being grilled in a way that no person can enter the place from home windows. They had been frightened and you can guess what happened upcoming!

Did you like the story? Make sure you share with your good friends, if it gave you an adrenaline rush.

Supply by Vaibhav Gupta

How Electronic Advertising and marketing Companies in India Are Encouraging Enterprises Remain Appropriate On the web

The advent of the net has opened up novel vistas for executing business enterprise. As for every a survey, India will have all-around 500 million world wide web consumers by 2017. This results in a intriguing opportunity for corporations to offer their services and products and solutions to a growing inhabitants of net customers.

The net has brought alongside with it newer strategies of advertising. Naturally, common advertising and marketing or outbound marketing methodologies that use Television set and radio ads, banners, hoardings and print advertisements in newspapers, publications, brochures and other advertising collateral, do not work on the online.

Inbound or on the web marketing, is marketing on the internet or in the electronic sphere. It will take into thought factors like webpage rankings in look for engine queries, promotion on research engines, banner ads on other internet websites, marketing and advertising on social media, and many others. These promoting strategies are very focused and goal specifically the viewers that a individual small business needs to serve advertisements to.

The will need to current market products and solutions on the net has presented rise to a new industry – the online marketing market. Digital marketing organizations in India offer extensive electronic internet marketing solutions for companies. They generally hire a professional team of area industry experts in search motor optimization (Web optimization), lookup engine promoting (SEM), social media internet marketing (SMM) and social media optimization (SMO).

A modern survey noted that 34% of the companies surveyed had an integrated digital advertising approach and 16% firms mentioned that they use online marketing on and off. A staggering 50% of the respondents reported that they do not have a defined strategy for web internet marketing. These quantities recommend that there are nonetheless businesses that have not been exposed to the amazing capabilities and powers of world-wide-web-based mostly marketing and advertising.

It is vital for Indian firms, in individual, in this age to recognize the great importance of getting an built-in net advertising system if they want to survive in a hugely frenzied and competitive marketplace. Without having the help of Digital Marketing and advertising Providers, they slide shorter of developing a method and experience the dangers of viewing them selves grow to be directionless. They will by no means know their on line market share, their present sector share will be received by existing and start out-up rivals and they will never ever have a potent on the net proposition.

A Digital Internet marketing Firm in India can enable corporations harness the electrical power of a strong world-wide-web-based mostly promoting technique. The use of novel platforms like the social media can be a activity changer as much more and far more people today are working with them to have interaction with brand names. It is an exceptional place to get followers, engage with them and provide them related and beneficial information. After they turn out to be faithful brand followers, specific ads are served to them to convert them into buyers.

Online marketing and advertising is the present and the long run. Corporations keeping away do so at their have threat. It really is worthwhile to climb on to the digital bandwagon even though the time is appropriate.

Supply by Ashish Chadha S