Author Archives: Phyllis Carpenter

3 Easy Ways to Invest in Foreign Stocks From India!

Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, Microsoft, Samsung, Tesla, Twitter… Invest These are some well-known companies in the world. We all have grown up using the products/services offered by these companies. Moreover, these companies are global leaders in their respective businesses, as well as innovators, who are likely to benefit in the future. But along with using their products, can we also own some shares of these companies?

Invest

Wait, these are not Indian companies, right? Therefore, they won’t be listed on the Indian stock exchanges. Even if you’ve a demat and trading account in India, you can trade/invest only in companies listed on Indian stock exchanges (BSE/NSE). But these companies will be listed in their respective country’s stock exchanges like US stock exchanges. Then, how to buy shares of a company that are not registered in India, but trades in the foreign stock exchanges?

Don’t worry, if you really want to buy these stocks- you’ll get it. In this post, we are going to discuss three simple ways through which you can invest in foreign stocks.

Why should you invest in foreign stocks?

Before we start this post, let us first discuss why should you invest in foreign stocks? Are they better than Indian companies? Here, you need to make up your mind why you want to invest in foreign companies. There are over 5,500 listed companies in the Indian stock market. Aren’t they enough? Why do you need to invest alternative stocks?

Further, which one is better to invest in- Indian companies or foreign companies?

Well, I’m really not in a position to answer the second question. It won’t do justice if a guy in his 20s sitting on the comfort of his couch judges these companies. These are giant multi-billionaire companies that we are talking about here. Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon, Samsung, Cisco, Tesla, etc are too big companies to comment upon. These companies have lots of cash, highly qualified professionals, employees in their management team and they are big innovators in their industry. Anyways, there are even many big Indian companies that can give competitions to many foreign companies.

Top reasons why many Indian invests in the US

Here are my top reasons why many Indian invests in the US or other foreign stock exchanges:

1. People want to invest in their favorite companies

Apple, Google, Twitter, Facebook, Amazon, Tesla etc. are the darlings of this generation. And of course, many people want to invest in these companies.

2. Diversification with Global Investments

Investing in foreign stocks helps in diversification. Let’s assume that the Indian equity market starts falling due to some local region. However, investing in foreign stocks can mitigate the risk in your portfolio as the local reason may not have a significant effect on the international markets.

3. To seize bigger opportunities

Once you start to invest in foreign stocks, there are no boundaries anymore. You can hunt for better (profitable) opportunities in the international markets.

Besides the above-mentioned points, few investors believe that foreign companies have better resources, facilities, government cooperation, and standards. That’s why they invest in these foreign companies, compared to Indian companies. Nevertheless, while deciding to invest in foreign stocks, you should also remember that India is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world. On the other hand, most of the international markets are a little saturated. Therefore, growth-wise, India has better potential.

Related:- Indian GDP Shrunk by 23.9% in First Quarter 2020

Cons of Investing in Foreign Stocks

There are two sides to every coin. Here are a few critical points to know before you invest in foreign stocks:

1. Be ready for the high charges

While investing in international stocks, you’ll be transacting in foreign currencies. For example, if you are trading in the US stock market, you have to pay the brokerages in the US dollar. And hence, the stock brokerages may be a little higher compared to the charges in the Indian stock market. Similarly, the annual/monthly maintenance charges may also be higher compared to domestic accounts.

2. Profits are subjected to the currency exchange rate

Let’s assume that you are investing in the US stock market. When you bought the US stock, the currency exchange rate was $1= Rs 68. However, next year- when you sold the US stock, let say the Indian currency got stronger, and the currency exchange rate becomes $1 = Rs 62. In such a case, you have already lost 8.8% due to the change in the exchange rate. That’s why when you invest in foreign stocks, profits are always subjected to the currency exchange rate.

3. Up to $250,000 can be invested overseas by the Indian residents

As per the RBI notification in the Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS), an Indian resident individual can only invest up to $250,000 overseas per year. With the current exchange rate of ($1= Rs 68), this amount turns out to be over 1.7 Crores. Anyways, if you have a family of four, you can invest 4 x $250,000 = $ 1 Million. That’s enough money to invest, right?

Quick Note: Besides the above factors, you also need to keep in mind the foreign stock risks. As these stocks will be listed on foreign stock exchanges – the environment and the factors (like local government policies, local trends, etc) will affect the share price of those companies.

How to invest in foreign stocks?

Now that you have learned the basic concept of investing in the international stock exchanges, here are three simple ways to invest in foreign stocks—

1. An account with Indian Brokers having a tie-up with a foreign broker

Many full-service Indian brokers like ICICI Direct, HDFC Securities, Kotak Sec, Axis Securities, Reliance money, etc has a tie-up with the foreign brokers. They have made it very simple to open your overseas trading account with their partner (foreign) brokers. You can invest in foreign stocks using these full-service brokers. 

For example, if you’ve an account with ICICI direct, you can invest in global markets using their broker partner Interactive Brokers LLC.

2. Open an account with the foreign brokers

A few international brokerage firms like Interactive BrokersTD AmeritradeCharles Schwab International Account, etc permits Indian citizens to set up an account and trade in US stocks, mutual funds, etc. In fact, US-based brokerage like ‘Interactive brokers’ also has an office in India where you can visit, get your queries answered, and open your overseas trading account.

3. Investing in Foreign stocks through new startups Apps

In the past few years, many new starts have been launched in India and abroad than helps Indians to invest in foreign stocks. For example, recently launched startup Vested Finance, helps Indians to invest in US stocks. They are a US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) registered investment advisor. Similarly, you can also invest in foreign stocks using the Webull app, another popular startup company that is also committed to building the best investing and trading experience for India and Global stock markets.

Related:- Good Debt vs Bad Debt: What You Need to Know?

Extra: Buying Indian MF/ETFs with global equities

There are a number of mutual funds/ETFs who invest in international markets (global market, emerging market, etc). You can invest in those mutual funds/ETFs to indirectly invest in foreign equities. 

This is the easiest approach to invest in foreign stocks. An advantage of investing through mutual funds is that you won’t need to open any overseas trading account. Further, you won’t also require to invest a hefty amount. Compared to direct investing in foreign stocks (where you might be asked to maintain a minimum of $10,000 deposit), investing in mutual funds/ETFs are cheap.

For example, Motilal Oswal recently started their subscription for its Motilal Oswal S&P 500 Index Fund. It is an open-ended scheme replicating the S&P 500 Index, which consists of leading 500 companies listed in the US. A few of the popular of popular mutual funds who trade in global equities are—

Quick Note: Many other Indian stockbrokers are also planning to offer their clients a facility to invest in the US and foreign stocks. For example, Zerodha is planning to offer option to invest in US stocks with no minimum investment. However, these features are yet to be launched. Nevertheless, these stockbrokers internally working on these features is a good sign for the Indian retail investors who are enthusiastic about investing in foreign companies.

Closing Thoughts

In this article, we discussed three easy ways to invest in foreign stocks from India, along with the forth way of mutual funds route. We also covered the advantages and disadvantages of investing in foreign stocks.

Investing in the foreign market will help you widen your investment horizon. Here, you can invest without boundaries in your favorite companies. Moreover, in the era of the internet- it’s not much difficult to invest in the international market. The most significant advantage is that it helps in diversifying your portfolio. However, the obstacles are higher expense charges and currency exchange rates.

That’s all for this article on different ways to invest in foreign stocks. Let me know what you think about investing in international stocks in the comment section below. Further, if you’ve got any questions on this topic, feel free to mention below. Have a great day and Happy investing.

Indian GDP Shrunk by 23.9% in First Quarter 2020

Hit by the Covid-19 pandemic, India, the world’s fifth-largest economy has been turned into the second-worst performer in the Covid-19 hit the quarter of the financial year 2020-21. India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has shrunk by 23.9% in the first quarter of the financial year 2020-21.

quarter

Generally in forecasts, it is of rare occurrence to find the negative performances beating the downward trends. But that is exactly what has happened in the first quarter as although a negative GDP was predicted but nothing close to wiping out 1/4th of the GDP. Today, we take a look at the reasons behind the decline and the possible future.

Related:- ‘National Educational Policy’ 2020 – Highlights & Concerns

Why did the Indian GDP Shrunk by 23.9%?

Earlier, when this issue of the state of the economy came up at the 41st GST Council Meeting on Friday, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman looked into the celestial factor and stated:

“This year we are facing an extraordinary situation…we are facing an act of God which might even result in the contraction of the economy.” – Nirmala Sitharaman, Finance Minister

Now, let us look into some of the hard facts. The Indian economy suffered due to the nationwide lockdown imposed. This was during the April- June quarter of which the lockdown covered a major portion. India had one of the longest and strictest Covid-19 lockdowns in the world. And unfortunately enough also suffered is suffering through the worst economic consequences. In comparison to other countries around the globe, India has been one of the worst-hit.

In order to understand how exactly the GDP was affected and how it can recover, we must first take a look at the components that form a part of the growth. These are consumption, government expenditure, investment, and the nation’s current account deficit (imports – exports).

  1. Consumption generally has the greatest impact on GDP. In the last quarter, consumption accounted for 56.4 percent of the country’s GDP. But when compared to figures from 2019 there is a drop of Rs 5,31,803 crore in private consumption or 27 percent. This has been one of the major reasons as to why the GDP has contracted. This is because people simply are not willing to consume more as most expect tougher times ahead.
  2. The Investment portion made up 32 percent of India’s GDP. This portion too fell by Rs 5,33,003 crore in comparison to last year. When coupled consumption these two components made up for 88 percent of the total GDP shrinkage
  3. The government expenditure share of the GDP stood at 11 percent. This component rose by 16% due to the relief measures provided by the government. This increase in expenditure, unfortunately, could not make up for the total decline from the consumption and investment portion.
  4. The current account deficit which historically has always been in negative recorded positive rates. But this too was not due to exports exceeding regular imports. It was simply due to the lack of imports due to a lack of demand.

The National Statistical Office (NSO) in an official statement released that “The GDP has shrunk from Rs 35.35 lakh crore in Q1 of 2019-20 to Rs 26.90 lakh crore in the first quarter of Q1 of 2020-21, showing a contraction of 23.9 percent as compared to 5.2 percent growth in Q1 2019-20,”.

Related:- Good Debt vs Bad Debt: What You Need to Know?

What does the future hold for the Indian economy?

The future of the Indian economy depends on how well is the purchasing capacity distributed among the general public. This is generally spread out by the income earned by the citizens.

But the pandemic has rendered millions jobless forcing them to cut back on their spending habits. This reduces the consumption portion. When there is a fall in consumption businesses avoid making investments as they already are aware of the lack of demand. These two portions, unfortunately, depend on individuals as they cannot be forced to spend. One factor that can be controlled is government expenditure in order to boost the GDP.

But unfortunately, enough even prior to the pandemic the government had already exceeded their resources by borrowing. The only option remains is to keep borrow from the RBI which has maintained amounts close to 18% of the GDP as a reserve. An infusion will provide some relief and may get the consumption portion moving as long as inflation is kept on check.

For the remaining quarters to come analysts have predicted that even though the GDP will improve but will still keep performing negatively. This recovery phase is expected to also likely extend into the first half of 2022. But these estimates depend on current figures and will change depending on how deeply COVID-19 outbreaks occur throughout the country.

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Good Debt vs Bad Debt: What You Need to Know?

A common misconception among most of the working population is that all debts are bad, and hence they should avoid debts at any cost. Now, it is possible that you may never take any debt/obligation throughout your lifetime. However, this is not a very smart move.

bad

Many times, taking debts to reach your goals can be a wise action and can help people succeed in the long term. As a matter of fact, all those who run a business or have a winning mindset know that – “Not all debts are bad!

Although buying luxury goods through debt on your credit card should definitely be considered as a bad debt, however, sometimes, it is okay to take a debt to start a business, buy your new house, for getting a higher education, etc when the possible returns in future are higher compared to the interests paid.

Good Debt vs Bad Debt

1) Good debts

There is a common saying in the business world– “Money makes money.” In other words, it means that you need money to make more money.

Concerning good debt vs bad debt, if you can use your debt to generate more money/value or simply increase your net worth, then it can be considered as good debt.

In general, these debts have lower interest rates than the potential returns and, therefore, treated as an investment for the future.

For example, if you’re starting a business, it is not necessary that you should have enough savings to get it off the ground. Here, if the future growth potential and expected returns from your business are high, you can take a business loan. The business loan can be considered as a good debt (on the condition that your business is fruitful).

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Here are a few other common examples of good debts:

— Education loans:

“The more you learn, the more you can earn.”

If taking a degree can increase your earning potential as an employee (or an employer), it’s okay to go for that debt. You are more likely to be better paid if you have higher knowledge and degree. Always be ready to “Invest in yourself,” and hence, taking a student/college debt can be considered good debt.

Anyways, please note that an education loan may turn out to be bad debt if you do not get employment as per your developed skills after graduation. Therefore, always choose the degree/program carefully because if there’s no substantial earning potential after you have completed the education, it may not be a good debt.

— Business loan:

If taking a business loan can increase sales, earnings, and improve your company’s financial health in the future, it can be a good debt. Moreover, having a balance in the account can also reduce the financial stress of owners as they do not have to worry about running out of cash constantly. And therefore, they can make better decisions for their business.

With time, the owners can slowly pay down the debt when their business becomes profitable and moreover stable. Anyways, a business loan can also become a bad debt if the businessman is blindly taking money for a risky business idea.

— Mortgages:

Mortgages for buying a house or real estate debts for property ownership can be considered as good debt.

Generally, buying a house or property involves a massive upfront cost. If you do not have saved a lot of money to invest in a house/property, but the potential earnings that you can make from your real estate investment are way high, then taking a loan may be a good idea.

Here, you can buy the property, live in it for years, save money on rent, and also sell it in the future for making money. Else, you can buy the property and rent it out to make money as rental income. As you are taking a loan to build an asset that increases in value, mortgages can be considered as good debts in the long run.

The Risks of Good Debt:

Although good debts may sound like a viable option for a better future, however, they are always dependent on a lot of assumptions. There’s no guarantee that the future will turn out to be the same as planned. For example:

  • You can get a college degree from your education loan but may have no job offer.
  • Your business loan may be a waste if your business/startup fails
  • You may be paying high mortgages for your house and may be left with no savings for the future.

Even for good debts, there are a lot of risks involved as people are forecasting the future based on their assumptions. Therefore, before taking an obligation, carefully assess the risks and rewards.

For example, if you are planning to get an education loan, choose to take the loan for a degree/program that you’re confident to be fruitful. Know the expected salary after graduation so that you can plan to pay the money back.

Besides, considering the worst-case scenario may also help here as you can even plan for it. Overall, always act smartly as a good debt may not always be right for everyone.

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2) Bad debts

Bad debts are the money that is borrowed to purchase depreciating assets or liabilities. In other words, if the value of assets doesn’t go up or generates income in the future, you should not buy it by borrowing money as they are bad debts.

In general, bad debts have a higher interest rate, and people can prevent taking these debts by making smart use of money. Here are a few examples of bad debts:

— Debts to buy fancy cars:

Cars cost a lot. While having a vehicle can be a necessity as it saves money and time, however, taking debt to buy an expensive car is never a good idea. The value of a vehicle depreciates over time, i.e. becomes less than what you paid for in the future. And hence, borrowing money to buy fancy cars can be considered as bad debt.

— Debts to buy luxuries:

Taking consumer/personal loans to purchase luxuries like expensive watches, clothes, dining in fancy restaurants, services, etc. are again bad debts. Personal loans have incredibly high-interest rates and are usually caused by living beyond one’s means. The money spent on these goods/services could have been used somewhere else.

— Credit Card debts:

Credit card debt is the worst form of bad debt. The interest paid on credit card debts is significantly higher than the rates on consumer loans. Moreover, as the outstanding amount accumulates each month, it makes it easy for the people to fall behind and become prey to the credit card companies.

Mixed/Special Cases of Good Debt vs Bad Debt:

The world is not just ‘Black’ and ‘White’. There’s also ‘Grey’!

Similarly, a debt cannot always be classified as good debt or bad debt. Sometimes, it can be both. It depends on your financial situation and preference. Here are a few examples:

— Borrowing to invest:

If you are getting money at a lower interest rate and making more money by investing it, then it can be considered as good debt. In the trading world, this is called leveraging, and it can help the traders to make a lot of profits using other people’s money.

Anyways, if the interest rate on the borrowed money is way high and the profits earned from your investment is low, then this money can be considered as a bad debt.

Overall, there’s a risk involved in borrowing money to invest. Until and unless, you’re trained and experienced to do so, this approach can be dangerous.

— Credit card rewards:

Although relying too much on credit cards be harmful, however, they are also a lot of benefits of using credit cards. Most of these cards come with amazing rewards like free airline tickets, movie tickets, cashback, etc. If you can use the credit cards efficiently, it can be considered as good debt.

— Consolidation loan:

In finance, consolidation occurs when someone pays off several smaller loans with one more jumbo loan. Here, the individual gets this loan at a lower rate to pay off the higher interest rate loans. In general, it can be considered a good idea to get rid of high-interest debts. However, the problem arises when the individual is not able to pay off the bigger loan or when the debts pile up.

‘National Educational Policy’ 2020 – Highlights & Concerns

On July 29th, 2020 the Modi government announced the National Educational Policy in a move that left us stunned over the sweeping changes involved. The only dismay that most of us had was that our wish to be able to study once these reforms are imposed is not possible.

Policy

In this article, we cover the key points of the NEP and their views from different perspectives with hopes that the policy is better understood and loopholes if any are addressed.

Highlights of the New Education Policy

This is the third education policy bought forward by the Indian government in its efforts to raise Indian education standards. A much-needed decision. 34 years after the last policy was implemented it is also the first Education policy by the BJP. The policy was approved by the union cabinet but is yet to be presented in the parliament.

The new National Educational Policy also requires further regulation between the state and center. However, it is still policy and not the law to be followed. The following are some of the points in the policy.

— NEP for Schools Students

1. New pedagogical and curricular structure of school education (5+3+3+4): 

The education system currently follows the 10+2 structure. This will soon be replaced by the 5+3+3+4 curricular structure. The new structure can be better understood when it corresponds with a child’s age i.e. 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively. The first stage includes time spent in Anganwadi and preschools.

This new structure divides the existing structure as per the cognitive developmental stages of a child. These are early childhood, school years, and secondary stage. It also should be noted that this change in structure does not change the years that a child spends in formal education. They remain the same as before.

The new structure brings changes to the examination structure too. As per existing norms, a child gives an exam after every academic year. But once the NEP is implemented children will give examinations only in class 3,5, and 8. This is apart from boards which too will see considerable changes. 

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2. Earlier, schooling was mandatory for children aged between six and 14 years. Now education will be compulsory for children aged between the three and 18 years.

This move would allow those aged from 14-18 years to also demand the same Right to Education(RTE) that was earlier present only up till 14years. Now children above the age of 14 too can demand this.  Meaning they can get educated up to 12th grade free of charges at any government educational establishment.

3. Mother tongue as the medium of instruction

It is obvious that the mother tongue is the first language that a child understands. Hence understanding newer concepts will be much easier when if done in the mother tongue itself. In order to implement this the medium of instruction in schools will change too.

This move is also inspired after observation of the medium of instruction imposed in some European countries. In these places, when a child is introduced into the schooling system he is only taught in his mother tongue be it German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, etc. depending on the country. Due to this, children are able to grasp trivial concepts easily. This will be made compulsory until 5th grade at least or preferably until the 8th.

The NEP also includes the three-language policy. Here all students will learn three languages in their school. It is mandatory that at least two of the three languages should be native to India.

The introduction of this policy is also in line with the NEP’s aim of increasing the Gross Enrollment Ratio in higher education. It has been found that the inability to cope with languages like English as the cause for dropping out.

4. Baglessdays and informal internship

According to this, students will participate in a 10-day bagless period. During this period students from Grades 6-8 will intern with local vocational experts such as carpenters, gardeners, potters, artists, etc.

This was another move, that was hugely appreciated as necessary professionals that are looked down upon by society will finally be viewed with newer outlooks in the coming generations. This move will also enable children to pick up at least one skill during the period.

5. Coding for Children

Children will now be able to learn to code from class 6 as coding will be included as a part of their curriculum. This move will put students at par with the Chinese where simila

6. Multi-Stream Flexibility

Once the NEP is imposed, the compartmentalization of students post 10th into Arts, Science and Commerce will be blurred. Now students will be allowed to take up courses from varied streams depending on their interests.

For eg., A student interested in physics will be able to do so by also taking up subjects like economics and politics. This was one of the most lauded moves of the NEP. Furthermore, Bachelor’s programs too will be multidisciplinary in nature with no rigid separation between arts and sciences.

— NEP For College Students

7. Common Entrance Tests for Colleges

Students now will be judged by common SAT (present in the US) like tests that will decide the eligibility of students for different colleges. These tests will be held twice in a year.

8. 4-year bachelor degree  

Funnily enough, just a few years back this move was highly criticized when implemented in Delhi. This move does not simply make bachelor degrees longer but also provides students with the option to change degrees if they feel it does not suit them. A student who realizes this and will be allowed to drop.

He also is allowed to transfer the credits he earned in the previous degree into the degree he chooses. A student who decides to drop out after completing 2 years can do so and will be provided with a diploma certificate associated with that degree. Students who drop out after 3 years will receive a bachelors missing out only on research opportunities present in the final year.

9. Fee Cap

The New policy suggests a cap on the fee charged by private institutions in the higher education space. One of the major hindrances a student faces when trying to obtain quality higher education has been affordability. A fee cap imposed would go a long way in making education more equitable.

10. Opening up higher education to foreign players

According to this the top 100 education institutions in the world will now be encouraged to come to India and set up campuses. Every year 750,000 Indian students go abroad in pursuit of higher education. This move will not only go a long way in reducing brain drain but also help in making global education more accessible. A similar move was implemented in the UAE successfully. The UAE is now home to universities like Hult International Business School, University of Wollongong, British University, American University of Sharjah and Dubai. Now that UAE can implement such a move it also shows the way to countries like India. Especially because we hold a student population much greater. Increasing the interest from foreign universities.

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Differed Views over the NEP 

Every point mentioned above is an advantage in itself. But post the disclosure of the NEP there have been varied viewpoints, concerns, and criticisms surfacing. We now look at these so-called loopholes in the NEP so that they can be further addressed

1. Language

There are many viewpoints directly addressed at languages i.e. medium through which students will be taught in schools, and the options available to them. First comes the problem of even introducing mother tongues into schools. India already faces a huge shortage of teachers leading to the skyrocketing teacher: student ratio in the country.

On top of this finding, a staff that is Qualified to teach is a challenge in itself. Next comes the challenge of bringing forward material in each of the mother tongues. Say for eg. bringing forward textbooks of maths, social in each of our mother tongues is a herculean task in itself.

It is completely understandable that the government wants to hold the same status as Germany, China, etc. where foreigners have to learn the language in order to better deal with the country. At the same time when the NEP is marketed in that way, it does not address that there are 22 languages active in India instead of one national language as in other countries.

The other problems that have already been raised with respect to language associates with the three-language policy. States like Tamil Nadu have already begun calling out the center and have associated the NEP as a tactic simply to implement Hindi in the state.

The three-language formula in the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 is “painful and saddening”, said Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Edappadi K Palaniswami, as he vowed not to implement the new policy. Unfortunately, the imposition of Hindi has been a major issue in Tamil Nadu often leading to protest and has reduced the NEP to another gimmick by the center by the current CM.

2. The increasing disparity between sections of society

The policy shows how students in government schools will be taught in the regional languages up to 5th standard if not 8th. The private schools, however, will not take a step back in introducing English from the early stages. If a student only begins to learn English 7 years later to that of students in private schools the difference will only add to those of learning a language in an environment that is not conducive to speaking, writing, and reading English.

Even when it comes to providing material to students in regional languages or mother tongues the NEP 2020 mentions that textbooks should be available in regional languages, but also must be downloadable and printable. It fails to address that less than 30% of Indians have smartphones. And if you and the people around you do have one it just shows us the fortunate category we are in and the fortunate category of people we surround ourselves with at all times. Also, there is a need for computers in order to learn to code.

3. Four-year graduation program

The four-year graduation program, unfortunately, lets go of most of the benefits after approving dropouts in the first year in order to change streams. What is the purpose of allowing dropouts in the later stages? Why should a student even wait to complete 4 years if he receives a diploma in two? If he leaves immediately he may have added 2 years of work experience instead of classwork.

And on top of all, how will a child from a lower-income background answer these questions when he is asked to take his diploma and start contributing to the family income.

Closing Thoughts 

Although there may be a few minor loopholes the new National Educational Policy, nevertheless is revolutionary. Hopefully, these are further addressed in the parliament sessions to come. The next question that pops up is – By when will the policy be implemented? The implementation, however, will start immediately with the first change being the Ministry of Human Resource Development getting renamed as the Ministry of Education.

Other implementations are to be done in phases from next month. Meaning many significant changes of the over 100 action points being noticed. The complete policy, however, is meant to transform the education system by 2040. Final judgment on the extent of its success can only be made on its execution. Hopefully, it doesn’t take till 2040.

Crypto Portfolio Based on Twitter – What Could Go Wrong?

A three-year-old crypto portfolio Twitter strategy has been added by the eToro platform for its retail investors and is now available for copy trading. “The TIE – Long Only” strategy measures market sentiment by analyzing Tweets using advanced Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools. What could go wrong?

Twitter

Let’s take an indepth look at the companies behind the product plus the details of the strategy itself. Then, we can determine any possible holes in the program.

What is eToro?

The eToro platform is a social trading and copy trading company that links professional traders (who earn from copy traders) with novice retail traders looking to be immediately involved in trading but who lack the knowledge to trade successfully.

Founded in 2016 in Tel Aviv by Yoni Assia, Ronen Assia, and David Ring, eToro for many years focused on social trading in the Foreign Exchange markets (Forex). Just this year, the platform launched crypto trading on the platform, rolling out initially with 8 established cryptos including bitcoin, Ether, and DASH. However, crypto trading is still not yet available to US investors.

The company employs over 850 people headquartered in London, Limassol, and Tel Aviv-Yafo. At the launch of their crypto trading feature, eToro had 3 million people signed up globally with 200,000 active monthly users.

eToro partnered with TheTIE information services firm to add the new tweet-based portfolio strategy to the platform.

Who is The TIE?

The TIE provides sophisticated data solutions for cryptocurrency assets. It utilizes algorithmic trading models based on the ‘wisdom of the crowd’.

The company is based in New York City and Connecticut, having begun operations in 2017. Founders Joshua Frank, Joseph Gits, Ben Latz and Eric Frank place a high value on the ethics of their data gathering, focusing on transparency and accountability in the products they provide.

The value of digital assets is driven by supply and demand, and movement is determined by the wisdom of the crowd.” eToro

In October 2017, leading up to the massive crypto market price actions of Dec 2017 and January 2018, The TIE first launched the The TIE Long Only strategy. Since that time, the algorithm as brought in a 281% ROI (after fees). When annualized since inception, the strategy has had an average return of 123%.

What’s interesting is that when you compare it to an equally weighted basket of the same crypto assets, which generated 29% ROI, The TIE Long Only outperformed by far.

You can find all the stats and historical performance data on the eToro site. But as you can see from the performance chart below, the heavy gains for 2019 came in a relatively short window of time, when crypto was pumping. The same can be said for 2017 and 2018.

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Why did eToro add this crypto portfolio strategy?

There are several reasons for the addition of this strategy to eToro’s social trading platform:

  1. First, because the crypto market is still in the early stages of maturity, social sentiment is still a significant indicator of cryptocurrency price movements.
  2. Traditionally, the small retail investor has not had the same data and tools for smart investing like the institutional investors and trading firms. This disadvantage is disintegrating in the face of blockchain technology. One of the major tenets of the blockchain industry is to level the playing field for all investors. The TIE Long Only strategy is one way of providing an institutional-grade investment product to the average Joe trader.

How does The TIE Long Only work?

Using a proprietary Natural Language Processing tool, The TIE Long Only scans the Twitter Firehouse, which is a real-time stream of every tweet. They take in approximately 850 million tweets per day. These are then scanned for specific terms related to crypto.

The advanced algorithm scores each word according to predetermined sentiment-related parameters. When the tweet volume for crypto words (such as BTC, Ether, or Binance) reaches a certain threshold of positive sentiment, the coin in question makes The TIE Long Only. Investors copying the strategy are then effectively ‘longing’ the digital asset.

Currently, the five cryptocurrencies with the highest level of market sentiment according to the algorithm will be part of this portfolio. Rebalancing happens every month. To get started, the minimum buy-in is $2,000 and the only fees charged are those associated with the spreads on whatever assets are traded. The cryptocurrencies in The TIE Long Only are not compared against other digital assets. Instead, they are compared to the social sentiment of other assets.

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Possible problems with social media-based strategy

The idea of a sentiment based portfolio seems to make sense in the nascent crypto market. However, there are some issues that could crop up to make the product less viable.

Manipulation

At Rice University, the Chair of Marketing, Utpal Dholokia, spoke about this type of trading strategy to Bloomberg. The gist was that because the crypto market is such a specialized niche, social influence strongly affects buying behavior. It should not be a sole indicator, though, but used more in a wider range of signals. Dholakia’s take is that with this strategy available to retail investors, we could see a lot more traders attempting to manipulate prices using tweeting strategies.

Indeed, anyone that has been active in “Crypto Twitter” understands the power of this sub universe. Crypto projects and their marketing teams can ultimately tweet however much they want using hashtags and positive sentiment-related terminology. In fact, The TIE Long Only is really a measure of Twitter manipulation and not so much a measure of ‘the wisdom of the crowd.”

One of the biggest problems in crypto is when novice traders are influenced by social media into taking risks they are not ready to handle. A tool like this in the hands of everyone could cause a proliferation of tweets by bad actors who are passing off shitcoins as viable investments.

The wisdom of what crowd?

It’s understandable that there aren’t a lot of tools yet to actually measure crypto activity. It’s plausible to turn to tweet sentiment. Especially with Crypto Twitter being the mega platform for crypto-related information. But when we say ‘wisdom of the crowd’, what crowd are we talking about?

Crypto Twitter is awash in new traders seeking information, as well as scam artists trying to hook them in. Meanwhile, you have legimitate projects promoting their offerings and communities dedicated to certain crypto niches, such as the Bitcoin Maximalists and DeFi.

All in all, it’s a very confusing place for any new crypto traders entering. Nefarious characters lay wait, sharpening their knives in the new, unregulated market. Not exactly a hotbed of crypto wisdom, we hate to admit.

Fake Tweets

Another challenge with using Twitter data is the existence of close to 50 million Twitter bots.

These automated tweeting mechanisms often spew out irrelevant or false information regarding cryptocurrencies.

According to a Duo Labs report in 2018, just one scam ICO project had 15,000 bots tweeting about it. Additionally, Crypto Twitter (CT) is full of false bot accounts running everything from referral programs on scan coins to phishing links and automatic engagement, such as with the XRP army.

Fibonacci Retracements: Technical Analysis?

The concept of Fibonacci was introduced by Italian Mathematician called Fibonacci (also known as Leonardo Bonacci or Leonardo of Pisa). This concept was primarily introduced to solve the problem of understanding the population growth of Rabbits. And it has now become one of the most interesting and sought after concepts in Mathematics and Trading.

Fibonacci

In this article, we’ll cover what is a Fibonacci Series, the implication of Fibonacci on trading, and how exactly to use Fibonacci while Trading.

What is Fibonacci Series?

The Fibonacci is a series of numbers starting from zero and arranged in such a way that the next number is a summation of the previous two numbers.

Therefore, the Fibonacci series is as follows: 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377………

Here are the calculation involved while finding the numbers in the Fibonacci series:

  • 0 + 1 = 1
  • 1 + 1 = 2
  • 1 + 2 = 3
  • 3 + 5 = 8
  • 5 + 8 = 13
  • 8 + 13 = 21
  • 13 + 21 = 34 and so on.

A Few Fun Facts about Fibonacci series

Before moving forward, here are a few fun facts about Fibonacci series that you should know:

  • If we divide any number by the previous number, then the ratio is always equal to 1.618 (233/144 or 144/89 or 89/55 or 55/34, etc.)
  • Second, if we divide the number by the next number, then the ratio is always equal to 0.618 (21/34 or 34/55 or 55/89 etc.)

Needless to that the number 0.618 (or 61.8%) holds a lot of significance while calculating Fibonacci.

  • If we divid any number in the series by a number which is two places higher, then the ratio is always equal to 0.382 (21/55 or 34/89 or 55/ 144, etc.)
  • And if we divide any number in the series by a number which is three places higher, then the ratio is always equal to 0.236 (21/89 or 34/144 or 55/233, etc.)

From the above facts, we get the percentage series for Fibonacci to be 61.8%, 38.2%, 23.6%

The implication of Fibonacci on trading

The Fibonacci series of 61.8%, 38.25, and 23.6% have a very impactful presence in all the charts of the share price of any company. It is applied regularly when we see movement in the prices of the shares. And it can be applied in all the time frames.

It is a known fact that the share price of the company does not move in one direction. The prices always have a zig-zag pattern. If the share price of the company has gone up from 100 to 150, then before having another leg up, it is most likely to retrace back. But to find the level of retracement, Fibonacci retracement levels come in very handy.

For example, if the share price of the company before going up = Rs. 100. In, the first leg of the move, the share price goes up to = Rs. 150

Therefore, if the share price retraces to 38.2% then it will fall to = 150 – 38% of 50 = 131. And if the share price retraces to 61%, then it will fall to = 150 – 61 % of 50 = 119 (approx.)

Uses of Fibonacci while Trading

Assume, if we are looking to buy the stocks of a particular company but because of the strong momentum in the price, the share price has gone up substantially and it is very expensive to buy the shares at the current price. Here, we wait for a correction in the share price of the company and wait for it to retrace around 61.8%, 38.2%, or 23.6% levels.

Anyways, before picking the right retracement levels, the following factors also need to be considered: The candlesticks formation near the retracement levels, The price action around the level, The support and resistances around it, The volume at these retracement levels, And the overall fundamental picture.

Conclusion

In this article, we tried to explain what are Fibonacci Retracements and how to use it while trading. Here are a few conclusions from this post to take away:

  • The Fibonacci should be used when one is looking to plot the retracement or projection levels.
  • Then Fibonacci is useful when one has missed the entry at first instance but is still interested in buying the shares of a particular company.
  • The important levels of Fibonacci are 61.8%, 38.2%, and 23.6%
  • Just the Retracement levels of Fibonacci should not be the only basis of entering the trade. Overall, fundamental and technical factors should also be considered.

How Electroneum is Changing the Cryptocurrency Industry

Electroneum was started in 2017 by CEO, Richard Ells, who wanted to see blockchain and cryptocurrency put to good use. So Electroneum set out to build products and a cryptocurrency that would help all entrepreneurs build their businesses easily and affordably.

In September 2017, they launched the ETN ICO campaign. It was so successful that it closed early, after achieving their Bitcoin and Ethereum target purchase of $40 million!

Electroneum

As a result of the success of their ICO and their rollout of savvy apps for digital purchases, Electoneum has maintained a flush treasury. The company continues to grow its outreach, and help users to build successful eCommerce. This means that the company is poised to have a strong return for ETN investors and users, as well as maintain a strong treasury to help secure the future of the company.

ETN Payment Systems

ETN is designed as a payment system that can be used for everyday payments, with very little cost to the seller. The cost of a single transaction is a fraction of the USD cent. This is much lower than many other cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin. Low transaction costs make small, everyday purchases possible with ETN’s digital payment and native cryptocurrency.

Electroneum has exploded since 2017 with over 3.8 million users as of June 2020. They have over 2 million app installations, as well as nearly 300,000 app-to-app ETN transfers. Electroneum does it all; it is a payment processing system and has its own native token, ETN.

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AnyTask App

By using AnyTask, users are able to sell personal services and products will no service costs, and it is VERY user friendly. Because they are a full-service payment processing app, there are no extra or expensive fees for users.

The ETN token and the app have been particularly successful in Brazil, Turkey, and Nigeria. AnyTask makes organizing payment processing for any kind of business easy, accessible, and affordable. With AnyTask, users can send and receive payments in ETN, and with fast-growing popularity, that makes paying for many services a lot more accessible for millions of people around the world.

ETN has put the efficiency of cryptocurrency and the security of blockchain into action. Over the three years that ETN has been in full swing over 1900 eCommerce and brick-and-mortar businesses, in 170 countries have registered easily with ETNEverywhere, and the numbers just keep growing.

Growing Partnerships – CellCard Cambodia 

Accessibility and affordability are a top priority for Electroneum’s digital payment ecosystem. In order to make this possible, they have even made an affordable smartphone that can be purchased through CellCard, a Cambodian mobile provider that they have partnered with.

Electroneum believes in making digital payment systems accessible for everyone, especially those who are currently unbanked. South East Asia is a particularly important area for digital payment systems. Cambodia has a population of around 650 million, with about half of that population under 30 years of age.

Cambodia is also the sixth fastest growing economy in the world, with a largely low-income and unbanked population. With a digital-savvy youth and entrepreneurial spirit, Cambodia is an important region to watch as far as Electroneum’s service offering.

In order to help grow digital payments in Cambodia, Electroneum started a direct partnership with CellCard, so it is even easier for Cambodians to top up ETN and data payments.

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Under the Hood – Everything You Need to Know about ETN

Over the past 3 years, Electoneum has done everything it can in order to make it a product worth using. They started off strong with a successful ICO campaign. But since then they have also held other promotions, including airdrops of ETN.

Now that the company is fully rolling, they will no longer be giving their cryptocurrency away. Although this is disappointing to those who love free things, it’s very good news for ETN’s strength. Recently the airdrops of ETN have stopped. This is an important next step to ensure the value of ETN increases; inflation has dropped to about 4%, which is a promising next step.

Along with an array of apps and products, Electroneum is one of the first fully KYC/AML compliant cryptocurrency. Working transparently with governments and corporations is a crucial step to ensure that Electroneum has a fast adoption rate. Such partnerships have been possible because they readily embraced the 2018 EU Anti-Money Laundering Directive.

The cryptocurrency is also incredibly secure and is one of the few blockchain networks that is invulnerable to a 51% attack. It is also the greenest cryptocurrency out there. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum use an incredible amount of energy to mine and use in transactions.

And as already mentioned, they have even built their own affordable smartphone designed for the needs of people in developing regions, which runs for about $40 USD.

Electroneum also works directly with multiple NGOs in developing nations and is a trusted blockchain transaction validator. Check out their NGOs page if you are interested in donating to any of their projects.

Bottom Line 

  • Electroneum: Electroneum LTD is registered in the UK, providing multiple digital payment services.
  • ETN: ETN is Electroneum’s native coin, and now a top 100 cryptocurrency overall.
  • AnyTask: AnyTask is the main payment application that makes it possible for companies to build an online marketplace.
  • Primary focus: To build an easy and affordable payment application. A global network allows individuals and small businesses to make transactions easy and affordable.
  • How: Electroneum can be used as an app-to-app payment system with only a smartphone.
  • Goals: With AnyTask and ETN digital payments, Electroneum aims to bridge the gap between individuals all around the world, especially those small businesses in developing countries.

COVID-19 Vaccine: When can we expect it to be ready?

The same question has been lurking in all our minds, “When will the pandemic end?”. The virus has contracted to over 17 million people, leading to the death of 656,000+ people and has affected all of us.

The cry for this ‘Pandemic of Fear’ to end is also mainly due to the mental desperation arrived at after being cooped up in our houses all day. Never has the world had to shut down at such a massive scale. This has baffled not only us but also scientists with every modern development trying to catch up.

vaccine

Experts have never seen a virus with such varied symptoms where few are ill with minor symptoms. Some with enough to be in bed for a few weeks while others need to get hospitalized with intensive care requiring ventilators to breathe at times even leading to death. After noticing these symptoms Dr. Fauci (Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) went ahead and termed the virus as the Perfect Storm.

In a desperate attempt to buy time countries all around the world resorted to closing down the economy. But soon were forced to open up after noticing the social but mainly economic damages. Studies from Oxford University predicted that the virus may just simply disappear by itself. The government soon realized that the only thing much worse off than the lockdown was sitting in hopes that it would simply disappear.

Different Routes Out for COVID-19 Pandemic

Experts have identified three ways out of this mess. They are:

1. Developing a vaccine

Where people who are vaccinated are immune and do not get ill even if they are exposed

2. Herd immunity

Here 60% of the population gets affected by the virus in order to recover and develop immunity so that the virus can no longer cause an outbreak.

3. Permanently change our behavior/society to adapt to functioning in the midst of COVID-19

Every route shown above helps in reducing the transmission of the virus. But when we focus on what can be controlled a behavioral change has already been initiated and vaccines are already in development and are being viewed as the most optimal solution to the pandemic. The question that comes with developing a vaccine is ‘By When?’.

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Lets Talk COVID-19 Vaccines

Vaccines were first discovered in 1796 in order to put a stop to Smallpox. Vaccines use weaker strains of weaker viruses to fight off a virus. In the case of Smallpox, it was observed that those affected by Cowpox would remain immune to Smallpox, and hence safer variants were used as vaccines to prevent Smallpox.

The procedure that goes into testing a vaccine

The testing process is divided into the following phases:

Phase 1: Here normal people of a small sample size receive the vaccine. The aim at this stage is to find out if the vaccine produces any adverse side-effects or reactions. The failure rate for vaccines at this stage is about 37 percent.

Phase 2: In the second stage, hundreds of healthy volunteers get tested for immunogenic and adverse effects. Here, the failure rate is about 69 percent. Phase one and Phase 2 put together are to take a minimum of 5 months. 

Phase 3: the scientists continue to monitor toxicity, immunogenicity, and severe adverse events (SAEs) on a much larger scale, and here in all probability, the failure rate is 42 percent and the phase generally takes 6 months.

It is hard to predict the time the current vaccine may take. If we observe vaccines that were created historically, the total time taken varied depending on the virus and technology available at disposal. Chickenpox vaccine took 28 years and the Rotavirus vaccine that led to millions of deaths in Africa and Asia( particularly in India) took over 15 years for development. Hence pinning all our hopes on a vaccine may not be the best idea after all!

Although there have been significant technological advancement and the fact that many countries around the world are in a race to develop a vaccine may just speed up the process. A WHO official stated that after taking into account the speedy development on a global front a vaccine ready for public deployment may take 4-5 years. This puts the estimated date for the vaccine to be rolled out for the public by 2025.

Where is India with regard to COVID-19 Vaccine?

Even though there are multiple countries around the world developing vaccines India caught everyone’s attention when a letter from Director General of the Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR) Dr. Balram Bhargava got leaked which suggested that the first vaccines be rolled out by August 15. This received significant flak from around the world for its rushed timeline. The letter said “It is envisaged to launch the vaccine for public health use latest by 15th August 2020 after completion of all clinical trials. BBIL is working expeditiously to meet the target, the however final outcome will depend on the cooperation of all clinical trial sites involved in this project.”

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How will COVID-19 Vaccine be made available to all?

If and when the vaccine gets delivered it has already been made clear by PM Modi that the first recipients would be those working in Healthcare to protect us.

It is logical that those next in line would be those most vulnerable. These include the elderly, women dealing with pregnancies, and infants then followed by others. Bharat Biotech, however, has said that if their Covax vaccine is approved it will be made available at Rs. 1000.

But let us take the case of vaccines developed for other viruses like HIV. This may help us better understand why multiple countries and organizations are racing to create a vaccine apart from the obvious ‘ Save the World’. Along with credits for the creation, the owner of the vaccine receives Global Intellectual Property rights. The patent rights are granted for up to 20 years. During this period the owner has a monopoly over the product and can set the price they feel fit. This, unfortunately, has been used to limit access to such essential goods.

The HIV virus affected over 40 million people around the world with South Africa being one of the worst affected. In order to combat this South Africa started to manufacture low-cost generic antiretroviral medicines to treat HIV. One would expect such a thing to be allowed on Humanitarian grounds but if we have learned anything fro the Martin Shkreli case, such a thing doesn’t happen.

40 US pharmaceutical firms with the South African government that started in February 1998 to prevent the country from manufacturing low-cost generic antiretroviral medicines used to treat HIV. Such information just makes us hope that the first to manufacture the vaccine is simply a country or organization that believes in making the vaccine affordable if not free and accessible to all.

Best Blue Chip Companies in India that You Should Know

Blue chip companies are large and well-established companies with a history of consistent performance.  These companies are financially strong (usually debt-free or very low debts) and are capable to survive in tough market situations.

Blue chip

Most of the blue chip companies are the market leaders in their industry. A few of the common examples of blue chip companies in India are HDFC Bank, HUL, ITC, Asian Paints, Maruti Suzuki etc.

Signature Characteristics of Blue Chip Companies

Here are a few signature characteristics which you can look forward while researching blue chip companies—

  1. They are large reputed companies.
  2. They have widely used products/services.
  3. Most of these companies are listed in the market for a very long time.
  4. Blue chip companies have survived a number of bear phases, market crises, financial troubles, etc. But they are still going strong.
  5. Blue chip companies have a strong balance sheet (a large number of assets compared to liabilities) and a healthy income statement (revenues and profits continuously growing for the last few decades).
  6. These companies have a good past track record of stable growth.

Almost all blue chip stocks are older companies. You might already know many of the blue chip companies in India and have been using their products/services in your day-to-day life.

Why are they called blue chips?

Oliver Gingold- who worked at Dow Jones, is credited to name the phrase ‘Blue Chip’ in 1923. The term ‘blue chips’ became popular after he wrote an article where he used ‘Blue chips’ to refer the stocks trading at a price of $200 or more.  

Quick Note: There are other sets of investors who believe that blue chip companies got its name from the Poker game, as in that game- blue chips are relatively more valuable. Similar to the game, the stocks which are more valuable in the market are termed blue chip stocks.

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Financial characteristics of blue chip stocks

Apart from the signature characteristics discussed above, here are few key financial characteristics of blue chip companies –

1. Blue chip companies have a large market capitalization -As a thumb rule, the market cap of most of the blue chip companies in India is greater than Rs 20,000 Crores.

2. Good past performance: Blue chip companies have a track record of good past performance (like consistently increasing annual revenue over a long-term).

3. Low debt to equity ratio: The bluest of the blue chips are (generally) debt free stocks. However, a lower and stable debt to equity ratio can also be considered as a significant characteristic of blue chip companies.

4. Good dividend history: Blue chip companies are known to reward decent dividends to their loyal shareholders.

5. Other characteristics: Apart from the above four- few other key characteristics of blue chip companies are a high return on equity (ROE), high-interest coverage ratio, low price to sales ratio etc.

10 Best Blue Chip Companies in India:

Now that you have understood the basic concept, here is the list of top 10 best blue chip companies in India. (Disclaimer- Please note that the companies mentioned below are based on the author’s research and personal opinion. It should not be considered as a stock recommendation.) 

— Reliance Industries

This company needs no introduction. Reliance Industries is an Indian conglomerate holding company and owns businesses across India engaged in energy, petrochemicals, textiles, natural resources, retail, and telecommunications.

In December 2015, Reliance Industries soft-launched Jio (Reliance Jio Infocomm Limited) and it crossed 8.3 million users as of January 2018.

Reliance is one of the most profitable companies in India and the second-largest publicly traded company in India by market capitalization. On 18 October 2007, Reliance Industries became the first Indian company to reach $100 billion market capitalization. It is also the highest income tax payer in the private sector in India.

— ITC

Indian Tobacco Company (ITC) is one of the biggest conglomerate company in India. ITC was formed in August 1910 under the name of Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. It has a diversified business which includes five segments: Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG), Hotels, Paperboards & Packaging, Agri-Business & Information Technology. Currently, ITC has over 25,000 employees.

As of 2016, ITC Ltd sells 81 percent of the cigarettes in India. Few of the major cigarette brands of ITC include Wills Navy Cut, Gold Flake Kings, Gold Flake Premium lights, Gold Flake Super Star, Insignia, India Kings etc.

Apart for the cigarette industry, few other well-known businesses of ITC are Aashirvaad, Mint-o, gum-o, B natural, Sunfeast, Candyman, Bingo!, Yippee!, Wills Lifestyle, John Players, Fiama Di Wills, Vivel, Essenza Di Wills, Superia, Engage, Classmate, PaperKraft etc.

— HDFC BANK

HDFC Bank is India’s leading banking and financial service company. It is India’s largest private sector lender by assets and has 84,325 employees (as of March 2017).

HDFC Bank provides a number of products and services which includes Wholesale banking, Retail banking, Treasury, Auto (car) Loans, Two Wheeler Loans, Personal Loans, Loan Against Property and Credit Cards. It is also the largest bank in India by market capitalization and was ranked 69th in 2016 BrandZ Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brands.

— Asian Paints

Asian paint is one of the largest Indian paint company and manufacturer. Since its foundation in 1942, Asian paint has come a long way to become India’s leading and Asia’s fourth-largest paint company, with a turnover of Rs 170.85 billion. It operates in 19 countries and has 26 paint manufacturing facilities in the world, servicing consumers in over 65 countries.

Asian Paints is engaged in the business of manufacturing, selling and distribution of paints, coatings, products related to home decor, bath fittings and providing of related services.

— TCS

Tata Consultancy Services Limited (TCS) is an Indian multinational information technology (IT) service, consulting and business solutions company. It was established in 1968 as a division of Tata Sons Limited. As of March 31, 2018, TCS employed 394,998 professionals.

TCS is one of the largest Indian companies by market capitalization (Rs 722,700 Crores as of June 2018). It is now placed among the most valuable IT services brands worldwide. TCS alone generates 70% dividends of its parent company, Tata Sons.

— Infosys

Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational corporation that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. It has its headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company by 2017 and 596th largest public company in the world in terms of revenue. On April 19, 2018, its market capitalization was $37.32 billion.

Infosys main business includes software development, maintenance, and independent validation services to companies in finance, insurance, manufacturing and other domains. It had a total of 200,364 employees at the end of March 2017.

— HUL

HUL is one of the largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Company in India with a heritage of over 80 years. It is a subsidiary of Unilever, a British Dutch Company. HUL’s products include foods, beverages, cleaning agents, personal care products, and water purifiers.

Few famous products of HUL are Lux, Lifebuoy, Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Pond’s, Vaseline, Lakmé, Dove, Clinic Plus, Sunsilk, Pepsodent, Closeup, Axe, Brooke Bond, Bru, Knorr, Kissan, Kwality Walls and Pureit.

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— Eicher Motors

Eicher Motors is an automobile manufacturer and parent company of Royal Enfield, a manufacturer of luxury motorcycles. Royal Enfield has made its distinctive motorcycles since 1901 which makes it the world’s oldest motorcycle brand in continuous production. Royal Enfield operates in over 40 countries around the world.

The Eicher Group has diversified business interests in design and development, manufacturing, and local and international marketing of trucks, buses, motorcycles, automotive gears, and components.

— Bajaj Auto

Bajaj Auto is a global two-wheeler and three-wheeler Indian manufacturing company. It manufactures and sells motorcycles, scooters and auto rickshaws. Bajaj Auto was founded by Jamnalal Bajaj in Rajasthan in the 1940s. It is the world’s sixth-largest manufacturer of motorcycles and the second-largest in India. 

Few of the popular motorcycle products of Bajaj Auto are PlatinaDiscoverPulsar and Avenger and CT 100. In the three-wheeler segment, it is the world’s largest manufacturer and accounts for almost 84% of India’s three-wheeler exports.

— Nestle India

Nestle India is a subsidiary of Nestle SA of Switzerland- which is the world’s largest food and beverages company. It was incorporated in the year 1956. Nestle India Ltd has 8 manufacturing facilities and 4 branch offices in India.  The Company has continuously focused its efforts to better understand the changing lifestyles of India and anticipate consumer needs in order to provide Taste, Nutrition, Health and Wellness through its product offerings.

Few famous products of Nestle India are Maggi, Nescafe, KitKat, MUNCH, MILKY BAR, BARONE, NESTLE CLASSIC, ALPINO etc. (On 8 March 2018, Nestle Indias food brand MAGGI completed 35 years of existence in India.)